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Chinam Patra, Arethi Kumar, Hemant Pandit, Satya Singh and Meduri Devi

Design and evaluation of sustained release bilayer tablets of propranolol hydrochloride

The objective of the present research was to develop a bilayer tablet of propranolol hydrochloride using superdisintegrant sodium starch glycolate for the fast release layer and water immiscible polymers such as ethylcellulose, Eudragit RLPO and Eudragit RSPO for the sustaining layer. In vitro dissolution studies were carried out in a USP 24 apparatus I. The formulations gave an initial burst effect to provide the loading dose of the drug followed by sustained release for 12 h from the sustaining layer of matrix embedded tablets. In vitro dissolution kinetics followed the Higuchi model via a non-Fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism after the initial burst release. FT-IR studies revealed that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers used in the study. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) showed no significant difference in the cumulative amount of drug release after 15 min, but significant difference (p < 0.05) in the amount of drug released after 12 h from optimized formulations was observed.

Open access

Alka Pawalia, Sivachidambaram Kulandaivelan, Satya Savant and Vikram Singh Yadav

Abstract

Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a home based physical activity intervention during pregnancy on weight and various obesity markers resulting in metabolic syndrome in future. Methods: The paper presents a pilot experimental study (pre-post comparison) from a larger ongoing trial, with40 pregnant women (20 each) having singleton pregnancy of >16 weeks of gestation, BMI >18.5 Kg/m2 and declared fit by gynecologist for physical activity during pregnancy. They were assigned to either home exercise group receiving antenatal weight loss intervention delivered via 2 exercise demonstration sessions and informative brochures with advised regular 30 minutes walking during pregnancy, while control group was advised once at initial recruitment for maintaining active lifestyle during pregnancy. The data was analyzed using IBM-SPSS-(version 21) software. Results: Though the exercise group had less weight gain and weight retention than the control group, the pregnancy home intervention alone was not effective in controlling obesity parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist to hip ratio (W/H).Conclusion: Home based pregnancy exercise intervention should include other adjunct components, which could be diet advice or timely supervised exercise sessions to have appreciable obesity control during pregnancy.

Open access

Alka Pawalia, Sivachidambaram Kulandaivelan, Satya Savant and Vikram Singh Yadav

Abstract

Background and aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity and diet during prenatal period and its effect on gestational weight gain (GWG), BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and post-partum weight retention (PPWR).

Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study (pre-post comparison) with 45 pregnant women having singleton pregnancy of >16 weeks of gestation, BMI>18.5 Kg/m2 and having a mobile phone. They were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=12 each; compliance rate 80%) (i.e.) exercise (n=12), exercise with diet advise (n=12) and control (n=12) group. Exercise groups attended weekly antenatal exercise sessions at the hospital during pregnancy; diet group received regular diet counseling followed by mobile text-messages (reminder, motivational, guidelines and benefits) to maintain adequate diet. The data was analyzed using IBM-SPSS software.

Results: Exercise groups gained less weight then control. Similarly, had mean GWG less as compared to control group though not statistically significant. The mean WC changes were significant amongst the groups with the exercise groups having least gain in WC (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Adopting an active lifestyle along with proper diet care can prevent development of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in Indian pregnant women which could prevent them from other associated lifestyle diseases in future.

Open access

Alka Pawalia, Sivachidambaram Кulandaivelan, Satya Savant and Vikram Singh Yadav

Abstract

The aim of this study was to measure the adequacy of gestational weight gain (GWG) in Indian women using various behavioural interventions during pregnancy, which primarily aim to observe the effects on obesity markers and weight retention. In this experimental study, one hundred and forty pregnant women underwent interventions in 5 groups, control (C), diet (D), home exercise (HE), supervised exercise (SE) and supervised exercise with diet (SED), from pregnancy through delivery with 2 months follow-up post-delivery. The outcome measures were GWG and baby birth weight. A one-way ANOVA indicated no differences in the mean GWG between groups (12.39±4.71 kg, p=0.947). The control group had the most (50%) and both the supervised exercise groups had the fewest (32%) women who gained above the recommended GWG, followed by the diet group (33.3%). The D and HE groups had the most women who gained within the GWG range, while both the SE and SED groups had the most women who gained below the GWG range. However, these results did not affect the birth weight between the groups (mean 2.96 kg±0.40, p=0.203). In women with normal BMIs, (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), the diet group had the most effective maintenance of adequate GWG, with 15%, 55%, and 30% of the women gaining above, within, and below the recommended GWG, respectively. The SE and SED groups had the least postpartum weight retention (PPWR) at 2 months, followed by the HM, D and C groups; i.e., the results showed a trend in the desired direction clinically, although they were not statistically significant (p=0.12). Supervised exercise can be effectively used as a pregnancy intervention to prevent excess GWG in Indian women. Diet counselling was found to be the next best intervention in combination with exercise, as well as for women with normal BMI.