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  • Author: Satya Prakash x
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Splat formation and degradation of hydroxyapatite during plasma spraying process

Plasma spraying is most used thermal spray process for coating of bioceramic and bioinert materials. It is line of sight technique, easy to use and inexpensive as compared to other processes used for coatings. The main disadvantage of this technique for coating hydroxyapatite (HA) is that due to high temperature of plasma (of the order of 16000°C) HA tends to degrade into amorphous calcium phosphates. These amorphous phases are not desirable and have a tendency to dissolve in body environment. In this article an attempt has been made to understand the plasma spraying process for coating of hydroxyapatite.


Activated charcoal was microencapsulated with Lactobacillus acidophilus 314 previously adapted for urea uptake. The creatinine removal capacity of this combination microcapsule was evaluated in-vitro in media simulating the small intestine. Results show that microcapsules containing both activated charcoal and L. acidophilus 314 demonstrated potential for decreasing creatinine. Interestingly, when co-encapsulating both activated charcoal and L. acidophilus 314 a smaller decrease in creatinine was observed than when encapsulating them separately. However, co-encapsulated microcapsules were more stable in various parts of the gastrointestinal system and survived longer in storage. These results suggest the feasibility of using microcapsules containing activated charcoal and probiotic bacteria as oral adjuvants for creatinine removal and provides a theoretical model for the use of these microcapsules to remove any unwanted metabolite.


The field of biotechnology is large and could be considered tritely as simply the development of technology that is based on biology. It is clear that the concepts of biotechnology can spread to cover many different fields of application and so the future developments in biotechnology will be similarly wide-ranging across many fields of applications. Here we focus onto medical biotechnology and further refine our discussion onto considering aspects of genetics and nanotechnologies that could impact on the development of future biotechnologies in the medical field. These areas that we consider in this brief article provide the basis for a panel discussion on Future Biotechnology at the European Biotechnology Congress held in Valencia, Spain in April 2019.


In this paper, we have established certain theorems involving Bailey pairs and WP-Bailey pairs. Further, making use of some known WP-Bailey pairs and theorems for constructing new WP-Bailey pairs, we have also established transformation formulas for q-hypergeometric series.