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Satish Kumar

Abstract

In this article, we provide a detailed review on the behavior of calendar anomalies (day–of–the–week, January and turn–of–month in particular) to understand their evolution over time. The research in the area of stock market indicates negative returns on Monday and positive returns on Friday; however, in the currency markets, results are opposite, that is, the returns on Monday are positive and higher than the returns on Friday which show negative returns. For the January (TOM) effect, the literature suggest that the returns during January (TOM trading days) are higher (lower) than the returns during rest of the year (non–TOM trading days). Further, these calendar anomalies were stronger during the 1980s and 1990s and have gradually diminished in the recent times which indicate that the markets have achieved a higher degree of efficiency.

Open access

Kaushal Kumar, Satish Kumar and Ajay Kumar

Abstract

In the present work, static settled concentration, pH and viscosity of bottom ash is studied with addition of additive. Sodium sulfate is used as an additive with proportion of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% (by weight). The solid concentration of bottom ash suspension varied from 20 to 50% (by weight). Remarkable improvement has been observed in static settled concentration, pH and viscosity with addition of sodium sulfate with proportion of 0.4%. Reduction in relative viscosity is highly pronounced at higher solid concentration. Similar observation has been reported for static settled concentration and pH of slurry suspension. Addition of additive in bottom ash suspension improves the rheological characteristics which can be beneficial for conveying bottom ash slurry suspension at higher concentration.

Open access

Satish Kumar, Gurdas Ram and Vishal Gupta

Abstract

In this communication, we characterize a measure of information of type (α, β, γ) by taking certain axioms parallel to those considered earlier by Harvda and Charvat along with the recursive relation (1.7). Some properties of this measure are also studied. This measure includes Shannon information measure as a special case

Open access

S. Kumar, H. S. Dungey and A. C. Matheson

Abstract

The two main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine how early is it possible to undertake selection to improve the stiffness of corewood; (2) to determine if the selection based on corewood stiffness could also improve outerwood stiffness, and vice versa. Breastheight data from two progeny trials of Pinus radiata D. Don were used. In the first trial (age 30 years), data on Silviscan predicted stiffness (MoE) was obtained for each growth ring on each core sample from 50 open-pollinated families. In the second trial (age 14 years), data on static-bending MoE was obtained using clearwood sticks (300 × 20 × 20 mm) cut from each tree from 18 control-pollinated families. MoE varied from 3.5 GPa in rings 1-5 to about 17 GPa in rings 21-25. Coefficients of variation of corewood and outerwood MoE were about 20-30% and 15-20% respectively. Estimates of narrowsense heritability for MoE were generally higher (0.50-0.70) in the corewood compared with the outerwood (0.15-0.30). Early selection for MoE could yield substantial gain in corewood MoE but only small gains, if any, in outerwood MoE (especially for rings 21-30). Estimated genetic correlations between density and stiffness appeared moderate in the corewood zone, but high in the outerwood zone. Selection based on density (using 5-mm cores) and acoustic stiffness (using standing tree tools), assessed at age 6-7 years, appeared to be a good option to improve both corewood and outerwood stiffness.

Open access

Durgacharan Panigrahi, Satish Kumar Sinha and Garib Nath Singh

Abstract

In India, a number of opencast mines are being worked over the coal pillars developed by underground bord and pillar method of mining. In these cases, the fires have occurred in most of these opencast mines causing loss of the coal reserve, production, productivity and safety. In this research work, 13 such mines have been studied over a period of three years and critical parameters for occurrence of these fires have been identified. This paper presents the details of observations for two such mines and detailed statistical analyses have been carried out by using confidence interval (C.I.) and analysis of variance (ANOVA-Two-way classification) for finding out the range of these critical parameters which can be controlled to reduce the occurrence of these fires.

Open access

Preeti Yadav, Sunil Jadhav, Vinesh Kumar, Kirtee Kaul, Satish Pant and Swaran Flora

Protective efficacy of 2-PAMCl, atropine and curcumin against dichlorvos induced toxicity in rats

The effect of 2- pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAMCl) and atropine with or without curcumin was investigated in dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate; DDVP) induced toxicity in rats. Rats were exposed to DDVP (2 mg/kg sub-cutaneously) once daily for the period of 21 days. Post DDVP exposure, rats were further treated with 2-PAMCl (50 mg/kg intramuscular, once daily) + atropine (10 mg/kg, i.m. once daily) with or without curcumin (200 mg/kg; oral; once daily) for further 21 days. We observed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), while there was a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) activity on DDVP exposure of rats. These alterations were restored significantly by co-administration of 2-PAMCl + atropine in DDVP exposed rats. Curcumin when co-supplemented with 2-PAMCl + atropine also significantly protected serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and restored brain AChE activity and 5-HT level in animals sub-chronically exposed to DDVP. Histopathological observations along with biochemical changes in rat blood and tissues revealed significant protection offered by 2-PAMCl + atropine against DDVP. The results indicate that DDVP-induced toxicity can be significantly protected by co-administration of 2-PAMCl + atropine individually, however, curcumin co-supplementation with 2-PAMCl + atropine provides more pronounced protection, concerning particularly neurological disorders.

Open access

Amit Agrawal, S. Satish Kumar and Umamaheswara Reddy V.

Abstract

Pneumocephalus can develop immediately following head trauma or clinical presentation may be delayed for days. We report a case of 35 year male whose initial CT scan brain plain small specks of pneumocephalus in left para-sellar region. However the next day he was complaining of severe headache and had multiple episodes of vomiting. Repeat CT scan showed increase in the size of pneumocephalus including appearance of intraventricular air with mild cerebral edema. The patient recovered well with conservative management. The present case is a gentle reminder that in a subgroup of head injury patients, intracranial air can produce significant mass effect leading to tension pneumocephalus which can can behave like other intracranial mass lesions and causes worsening of the neurological status of these patients.

Open access

S. Satish Kumar, M. Srinivas, K. Raghu, P. Shashidhar and Amit Agrawal

Abstract

Thrombocytopenia in critically ill patients probably reflects the severity of the underlying illness and these patients have a higher mortality due to the severity of overall clinical status. In present article we report a case of acute subdural hematoma who developed progressive thrombocytopenia resulting in fatal outcome. A 75 year gentleman presented with history of sudden onset headache and lapsed into altered sensorium. There was history of trivial fall before he developed headache. The patient was deeply comatose with pupils bilateral 2 mm and reacting to light. Computerized tomography (CT) scan brain showed large right fronto-temporo-parietal acute subdural hematoma with mass effect and midline shift. Post-operatively he was kept on elective ventilation. On following days the patient continues to develop thrombocytopenia (Day- 3 Platelet count 75,000, day-4 60,000, day-5 25,000). Thrombocytopenia is a common but a potentially life-threatening condition problem and has been considered to play a role in worsening the prognosis of critically ill patients in intensive care unit. Few studies statistically examine the strength of the association between risk factors and outcomes related to thrombocytopenia, additional research is recommended to identify putative molecular determinants.

Open access

Amit Agrawal, Ashok Munivenkatappa, B.V. Subrahmanyam, S. Satish Kumar and P. Ramamohan

Abstract

Introduction. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is affected by multiple factors. Patient’s education, manifesting symptoms and surgical management play a significant role on discharge outcome. The literature of same from developing country is limited. The present pilot study aims to describe patient characteristics, presenting symptom and management aspects of TBI patients from a tertiary hospital.

Methods. The present study is a prospective study, where TBI patients were selected and data of injury was entered on standard proforma on electronic data base. The study was approved by institute ethical board. The data was analyzed using Stats Direct version 3.0.150 software.

Results. Three hundred and thirty three patients were evaluated. Eighty percent of patients were from rural areas. About 75% of patients were illiterates and married. Patient employment was significant with discharge outcome. All the patients manifested with symptoms loss of consciousness (LOC) was higher (73%) followed by vomiting (44%). LOC and oral bleed was significant with outcome. Associated injuries was higher in extremities (22.5%) followed by chest (4.4%). About 15% of patients require intracranial surgery that was significant with discharge outcome.

Conclusion. The present pilot study finding is similar to available literature data and adds knowledge to TBI data of a developing country like India.

Open access

Amit Agrawal, S. Satish Kumar and Umamaheswara Reddy V.

Abstract

A missed or delayed detection of intracranial injuries can lead to progressive neuronal damage and secondary brain damage. We present a case of 45 year female presented 8 after the road traffic accident and had a large posterior extradural hematoma on left side with mass effect. In addition there was a small speck of right frontal contusion with localized cerebral edema. The patient initially improved after evacuation of the hematoma. However on 3rd post-operative day she was complaining of headache and became progressively drowsy. A follow up CT scan showed increase in peri-lesional edema around the right frontal contusion with squashing of the lateral ventricles suggestive of diffuse cerebral edema. The patient was shifted back to intensive care unit and responded well to further conservative management. In our patient the events could be collaborated well with existing evidence (presence of contrecoup contusion and on clinical deterioration at day 3).