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Open access

Arnis Vilks, Santa Rasa, Simona Doniņa, Modra Murovska and Biruta Mamaja

Abstract

Microvascular free flap surgery is a complex method of wound closure for large wounds. Tissue trauma, surgical stress and general anaesthesia are known immunosuppressors that may exacerbate postoperative infections. Beta-herpesviruses HHV-6 and HHV-7 are immunomodulating viruses highly prevalent in the population of healthy individuals, which can interfere with the function of the host immune system. These viruses can be reactivated in immunosuppressed conditions. The aim of this study was to monitor the potential effects of two different anaesthesia techniques - general anaesthesia (GA) and regional anaesthesia (RA) - on the activation of HHV-6 and HHV-7 infection in relation to changes in the total lymphocyte count and peripheral immune cell distribution after microvascular free flap surgery. We found significant increase in the frequency of active HHV-7 infection after surgery (p < 0.05) in the GA group. In the RA group changes were not significant. The activation of HHV-7 infection was associated with decrease in the total lymphocyte count post-operatively in patients from the GA group. The data of our study show that reconstructive flap surgery under GA is linked with more frequent postoperative lymphopenia, which is a potential post-operative immunosuppressor that probably triggers the activation of HHV-6 and HHV-7 infection

Open access

Svetlana Čapenko, Marija Mihailova, Santa Rasa, Angelika Krūmiņa, Zane Zazerska, Ināra Logina and Modra Murovska

Abstract

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic widespread pain disorder that impacts 0.5%-7% of the general population worldwide. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the disease are still unknown. Human herpesvirus-6 and -7 belong to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Betaherpesvirinae, and genus Roseolovirus and are immunomodulating viruses potentially pathogenic to the nervous system. Presence of anti-HHV-6 and -HHV-7 antibodies and viral genomic sequences, viral loads, HHV-6 variant-specificity, and TNF-α level were studied in 41 FM patients and 50 healthy individuals using polymerase chain reactions, restriction endonuclease analysis and ELISA. There was no difference in the presence of anti-HHV-6 and anti-HHV-7 IgG class antibodies between FM patients and control group individuals. Viral sequences were found in 80.5% of FM patients and in 62.0% of controls. Significantly higher rate of concurrent HHV-6 and HHV-7 infection and higher viral loads in peripheral blood were detected in FM patients compared to the control group individuals. Plasma viremia was detected only in FM patients. Significantly higher TNF-α levels were detected in virus positive FM patients. From all positive cases only in two FM patients HHV-6A was revealed. Significantly higher detection frequency of concurrent HHV-6 and HHV-7 infection, simultaneous HHV-6 and HHV-7 activation, higher viral loads and TNF-α expression levels in primary FM patients than in control group individuals indicate the potential involvement of Roseoloviruses in development of this disorder.

Open access

Marija Mihailova, Ināra Logina, Santa Rasa, Svetlana Čapenko, Modra Murovska and Angelika Krūmiņa

Abstract

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disorder manifested by diffuse musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep, and emotional disturbance. The disorder is probably associated with dysfunction of C and A delta peripheral nerve fibres. Thermal quantitative sensory testing (QST) was used to analyse thinly myelinated A delta fibres and nonmylinated C fibres, which function in the nociceptive sensory system, and the spinothalamic pathway. The observation that FM pain has neuropathic nature increased the value of QST as an additional diagnostic tool. The research group included 51 patients. Somatic symptoms were assessed using the Fatigue Severity Score (FSS), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2010 year diagnostic criteria. QST was performed by using thermal stimulus at wrist and feet. QST results were compared with 20 non-FM controls matched for age and sex. FM patients showed significant alteration of thermal perception and pain threshold compared with that in healthy controls, which demonstrated possible neuropathic pain nature in FM patients. Changes were more expressed in warm perception and heat pain threshold, which probably indicates that in FM patients C fibres are more damaged and warm perception and warm pain threshold are more sensitive, which may be used as FM diagnostics. We also found statistically significant negative correlations between warm and cold perception thresholds and between heat and cold pain thresholds, reflecting central sensitization or a defective pain inhibitory system.

Open access

Anda Vilmane, Inga Ziemele, Santa Rasa, Anna Terentjeva, Modra Murovska, Dace Gardovska, Yung-Cheng Lin and Zaiga Nora-Krūkle

Abstract

Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality of children in the world. In addition to respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus types A and B, parainfluenza types 1, 2 and 3, and adenoviruses, several new respiratory viruses associated with LRTI were discovered in the 21st century. These are metapneumovirus, coronaviruses NL63 and HKU1, parainfluenza virus type four and human bocavirus one (HBoV1). HBoV1 was discovered in 2005 and is considered as the fourth most prevalent respiratory virus worldwide. However, the high frequency of co-infections detected together with HBoV1 raises doubt about whether HBoV1 is a true pathogen or just a bystander. This is the first study aimed to determine the presence of HBoV1 and 18 other respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) of children with LRTI in Latvia. Using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction method, the HBoV1 genomic sequence was detected in 60.0% of NPA samples, showing that HBoV1 prevalence is high among children with LRTI in Latvia. HBoV1 mono-infection was revealed in 6.67%. The most common co-infections associated with HBoV1 were rhinovirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus A and B, metapneumovirus, and enterovirus.

Open access

Zaiga Nora-Krūkle, Santa Rasa, Anda Vilmane, Sabīne Grāvelsiņa, Mārtiņš Kālis, Inga Ziemele, Milda Naciute, Sigita Petraitiene, Diana Mieliauskaite, Migle Klimantaviciene, Irute Girkontaite, Hsin-Fu Liu, Jih-Hui Lin, Yung-Cheng Lin, Hsiu-Chuan Chan, Dace Gardovska and Modra Murovska

Abstract

Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is a parvovirus recently found to be a possible aetiologic agent of acute respiratory disease in children. We conducted the first clinical and molecular study on this virus in Latvia (LV) and Lithuania (LT). The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence of HBoV1 in respiratory tract samples taken from hospitalised children with acute respiratory tract infections in LV and LT. In total 186 children with age one to 50 months, and who fulfilled criteria of acute respiratory tract infection, including lower respiratory tract infections, with or without fever, were included in this study. A nasopharyngeal aspirate was obtained from each patient on admission. DNA was isolated and polimerase chain reaction (PCR) performed targeting the HBoV1 NS1sequence. HBoV1 positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. HBoV1 sequence was detected in 42 (32%) of 130 LV and in 8 (14%) of 56 LT samples. In LV the majority of patients with HBoV1 infection were observed in February while in LT in October. The phylogenetic tree for HBoV1 indicated that isolates of HBoV1 cluster closely and include almost all of the isolates in this study. HBoV1 is common in Latvia and Lithuania and might be a significant pathogen that contributes to acute respiratory tract infections in children.