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  • Author: Sanja Stojanović x
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Perforation of the Right Ventricle as a Complication of Pericardiocentesis: A Case report

Summary

Pericardial effusion represents the accumulation of larger amounts of fluid in the pericardial cavity. If not timely diagnosed and adequately treated, it can lead to cardiac tamponade. The treatment of pericardial effusion includes primarily the use of drugs like aspirin, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and/or colchicine followed by invasive procedures such as pericardiocentesis or pericardiectomy. Pericardiocentesis complications are extremely rare but very serious especially in the case of the rupture of the right ventricle or the coronary arteries. Patient S.V, born in 1938, from Svrljig, was examined because of suffocating and swollen shin. The medical reports showed that the patient previously had had a permanent pacemaker implanted and that he had undergone a triple coronary artery bridging. Medical reports also showed that two months before the examination he was hospitalized due to pericardial effusion at the reference institution. The ultrasonographic examination registered large circular effusion with the motion of the right ventricle and the patient underwent urgent pericardiocentesis. During pericardiocentesis, the rupture of the right ventricle occurred and the patient was sent to the cardiac surgery clinic where he had catheter extraction performed. The control ultrasound examination of the heart showed no pericardial effusion, and no signs of damage to the right ventricle.

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Case Report of the Patient with Acute Myocardial Infarction: “From Flatline to Stent Implantation”

Summary

Asystole is a rare primary manifestation in the development of sudden cardiac death (SCD), and survival during cardiac arrest as the consequence of asystole is extremely low. The aim of our paper is to illustrate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and rare and severe form of cardiac arrest - asystole. A very short time between cardiac arrest in acute myocardial infarction, which was manifested by asystole, and the adequate CPR measures that have been taken are of great importance for the survival of our patient.

After successful reanimation, the diagnosis of anterior wall AMI with ST segment elevation was established. The right therapeutic strategy is certainly the early primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). In less than two hours, after recording the “flatline” and successful reanimation, the patient was in the catheterization laboratory, where a successful PPCI of LAD was performed, after emergency coronary angiography. In the further treatment course of the patient, the majority of risk factors were corrected, except for smoking, which may be the reason for newly discovered lung tumor disease. Early recognition and properly applied treatment of CPR can produce higher rates of survival.

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Aortic Dissection - The Role of Echocardiography in Emergency Unit: Case Report

Summary

Aortic dissection is a quite rare but serious condition, often associated with a very high mortality rate; it is manifested by sudden chest pain and acute hemodynamic compromise. In the presented review, a case of an ascending aortic dissection with the lethal outcome is been shown. A healthy man with no past history of illness suddenly felt acute excruciating chest pain which was radiating to the back. A quick diagnosis, ideally within one hour of manifestation, heart auscultation and echocardiography are the key to aortic dissection recovery.

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Diagnostic Importance of CA-125 in Detection of Recurrence and Progress of the Disease in Stages III and IV of Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma

Diagnostic Importance of CA-125 in Detection of Recurrence and Progress of the Disease in Stages III and IV of Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma

In 60 patients operated in stages III and IV of epithelial ovarian carcinoma continuous determination of CA 125 from serum was done during the following 2 years. The main condition for entering the survey were elevated values of CA 125 in serum > 35 U/mL and histologically verified epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The aim of the survey was to perform statistical assessment of serum CA 125 determination in diagnostics of recurrence and progression of the disease in stages III and IV of epithelial ovarian carcinoma, and percentage (%) of false positive and negative results. Determination of CA 125 from serum during 2 postoperative years is a reliable but not completely certain diagnostic parameter in detection of the disease progression in stages III and IV of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (sensitivity 79.3%, specificity 97.1%, positive predictive value 91.2%, negative predictive value 92.4%, test accuracy 92.1%). False positive (0.7%) and false negative results (4.7%) of individual tests were present in 5.4% of all samples.

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Acute Myocardial Infarction with an Initially Non–Diagnostic Electrocardiogram – Clinical Intuition is Crucial for Decision Making

Summary

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common cause of reduced cardiac capacity and functional status of a patient. Successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in acute coronary syndrome and appropriate, complex cardiovascular rehabilitation play a major role in preserving left ventricular function and improvement of prognosis and quality of patient’s life. The aim of this paper was to present a clinical course in a patient with acute myocardial infarction who did not have a classic ECG presentation in the form of ST-segment elevation. We showed that in everyday clinical work it is essential to timely recognize the symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, make the proper diagnosis and perform right treatment strategy. The next step is cardiovascular rehabilitation program, which positive effects, in our patient, was achieved through the retrieval of functional capacity and correction of risk factors.

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The Association Between Obesity and Visit-to-visit Variability in Systolic Blood Pressure: A Prospective Study

Abstract

With the prevalence of obesity and all accompanying health risks, both prevention and health education, as well as identifying predictors for the development of obesity-related diseases are primary. Th e pathophysiological relationship between obesity and visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure (SBPV) has not been completely resolved. To investigate the association between obesity and SBPV in hypertensive patients. Th e prospective study comprised three visits was performed at the hypertension outpatient clinic during the follow up period of 22-months between March 2014 and January 2016. Th is study included 300 randomly selected hypertensive patients (average 67.76±9.84 years), who were divided in groups of obese/non-obese examinees. SBPV was defined as the standard deviation (SD) from three values of SBP. Th e values of SBP and SBP-SD were significantly higher in the group of obese hypertensive patients than in the group of non-obese patients (126.67±8.22 vs 120.45±7.79 mmHg, 11.00±5.64 vs 7.34±3.96; p<0.01). Th e highest SBPV was recorded in the 4th quartile in obese patients (43.13±7.50 mmHg). Th ere was statistically stronger correlation between SBPV and BMI/Waist cirumferences (WC) (ρο=0.425/ ρο=0.356, p<0.01). During 22-months follow up there was a significant decrease of SBPV for 8.2 mmHg, BP for 31/8 mmHg, BMI for 3.8 kg/m2, WC for 10 cm and body weight for 8.24 kg. During 22-months follow-up, reduction of body weight was associated with reduction of blood pressure variability in hypertensive patients. Persistently decrease both body weight and long term visit-to-visit variability may explain lower cardiovascular risk in obese-related disease.

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The Effects of Subchronic Methionine Overload Administered Alone or Simultaneously with L-cysteine or N-acetyl-L-cysteine on Body Weight, Homocysteine Levels and Biochemical Parameters in the Blood of Male Wistar Rats

Abstract

Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC), both basal and after methionine load, may occur due to genetic disorders or deficiencies of nutrients that affect the remethylation or trans-sulphuration pathways during methionine metabolism. HHC is involved in the pathogenesis of many illnesses as a result of its prooxidative effect and its impairment of antioxidative protection. The aim was to examine the effects of subchronic methionine overload on the body weight and standard biochemical parameters in rat serum and to examine whether simultaneous subchronic intraperotoneal administration of methionine alone or together with L-cysteine or N-acetyl-cysteine resulted in a change in the body weight and biochemical parameters in the rat serum. The research was conducted during a three-week period (male Wistar albino rats, n=36, body weight of approximately 160 g, age of 15-20 days), and the animals were divided into a control group and three experimental groups of 8-10 animals each: a) control group (0.9% sodium chloride 0.1-0.2 ml/day); b) methionine (0.8 mmol/kg/bw/day) (MET group); c) methionine (0.8 mmol/kg/bw/day) + L-cysteine (7 mg/kg/bw/day) (L-cys+MET group); and d) methionine (0.8 mmol/kg/bw/day) + N-acetyl-L-cysteine (50 mg/kg/bw/day) (NAC+MET group). In addition to the body weight monitoring, the levels of total homocysteine and the standard biochemical parameters in blood samples (plasma or serum) were determined. The results indicated that monitoring the homocysteine levels and standard biochemical parameters in blood could be used for analysis and could provide an excellent guideline for distinguishing between toxic and non-toxic doses of methionine intake, which may be meaningful for clinical applications.

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Direct Estimation of Reference Intervals for Thyroid Parameters in the Republic of Srpska

Summary

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the reference values for thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormones (total and free thyroxine, T4 and fT4; total and free triiodothyronine, T3 and fT3), thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid antibodies (thyroid peroxidase, TPOAb and thyroglobulin antibody, TgAb) in the population of the Republic of Srpska.

Methods: A total of 250 euthyroid subjects were enrolled in this study. A direct method for choosing reference subjects was used to establish reference intervals. The hormones and thyroid antibodies were measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method (ECLIA, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). We calculated the reference intervals by MedCalc, version 12.1.4.0 (MedCalc software, Belgium) as recommended by the IFCC (CLSI C28-A3).

Results: Using guidelines recommended by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) and based on standard statistical approaches, the reference intervals derived for TSH, fT4, T4, fT3, T3 were 0.75-5.32 mlU/L, 12.29-20.03 pmol/L, 73.49-126,30 nmol/L, 4.11-6.32 pmol/L, 1.15-2.32 nmol/L and for Tg, TPOAb, TgAb were 3.63-26.00 mg/L, <18.02 mlU/L, < 98.00 mlU/L, respectively. We found a significant difference (p<0.05) in TSH and fT3 values between different age groups as well as in T4, fT4 and fT3 values between gender groups.

Conclusions: The established reference values for the population of the Republic of Srpska were significantly different from the values recommended by the manufacturer of reagents (Roche Diagnostics). Our results showed that a laboratory needs to establish its own reference values in order to set up a proper diagnosis, as well as to treat patients successfully.

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