Information sources are considered a catalyst for innovation improvement, and because of this it is particularly important to learn more regarding their impact on innovation performance. Therefore, the goal of this research is to investigate to what extent the usage of different information sources influences internal and external R&D activities in three countries, Croatia, France and the Netherlands, by employing CIS data, which covers the period from 2006 to 2008. These countries were chosen because of the different levels of their country competitiveness (measured by the Global Competitiveness Index), which permits us to investigate if the usage of information sources has varying impact on their innovation performance. Our results reveal that internal sources, customers, suppliers and universities are important information sources for both internal and external R&D activities in all three countries. However, significant differences are also found. Firms from the Netherlands (which has the highest country competitiveness) use information sources differently, relying on competitors as one of their most important sources of innovation. On the other hand, the government did not have any impact on firms in Croatia (which has the lowest country competitiveness), indicating that this may be the reason for similar countries lagging behind.
Background: Various in vivo and in vitro models have been described in order to elucidate the pathobiology underlying the traumatic brain injury (TBI) and test potentially suitable treatments. Since TBI is a complex disease, models differ in regard to the aspect of TBI that is being investigated. One of the used in vitro models is the scratch wound assay, first established as a reproducible, low-cost assay for the analysis of cell migration in vitro. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the relevancy of this model as a counter- part of in vivo TBI models.
Methods: We have examined the astrocytic response to a mechanical injury in terms of expression of chondroitin sul- fate proteoglycans (CSPGs) - phosphacan, neurocan and brevican, using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry.
Results: Our results indicate that in vitro scratch wounding alters the expression profile of examined CSPGs. Four hours after the scratch injury of the astrocytic monolayer, real-time PCR analysis revealed upregulation of mRNA levels for phos- phacan (3-fold) and neurocan (2-fold), whereas brevican mRNA was downregulated (2-fold). Immunofluorescent sig- nal for phosphacan and neurocan was more intense in astro- cytes close to the injury site, while brevican was scarcely present in cultured astrocytes.
Conclusions: Obtained results indicate that CSPGs are differ- entially expressed by astrocytes after scratch wounding, demonstrating that the scratch wound model might be suit- able for investigation of astrocyte-derived response to injury.
Background: In Montenegro, there is a growing awareness of the necessity to further develop sustainable forms of tourism and foster economic development of mostly agrarian northern rural areas. However, this is of the utmost importance not only for sustaining local economy, but also for creating more balanced framework for territorial development.
Objectives: Paper aims to set a framework for studying the role of innovations and entrepreneurship in developing sustainable agro-tourism in Montenegro through identifying main resources, obstacles, challenges and potentials of the process.
Methods/Approach: The analysis is based on both review of the secondary sources and the fieldwork conducted between June and October 2015 in rural areas of Kuci and Durmitor, as well as the number of interviews with farmers and tourism professionals from the country.
Results: The results highlighted the low levels of both entrepreneurial culture and hospitality awareness amongst local population, lack of investments, infrastructural backwardness and insufficient government support as the main obstacles to developing successful and sustainable agro-tourism ventures.
Conclusions: Public bodies should create a comprehensive strategy for sustainable tourism development, which should focus on providing incentives, training and support to the farmers eager to diversify their agro-activities through entrepreneurial actions.
As a leader's behavior can have a strong impact on different employee workrelated outcomes, various approaches have been put forth in an effort to determine the most effective form of leadership and determinants of individuals' choice of leadership style. This paper analyzed whether one's choice of leadership style is due more to personal or organizational characteristics. We used survey data to investigate the determinants of leadership style among Montenegrin managers. Our analysis showed that, although demographic characteristics such as gender, age, and education do not influence the choice of leadership style, internal organizational characteristics such as hierarchical level, managerial orientation to tasks/people, and decision-making characteristics such as decisionmaking style and decision-making environment are positively associated with the choice of democratic leadership style. This contributes to recent research in leadership that shows how some personal characteristics are considered to be less important in developing certain styles and that the choice of style is more dependent and contingent on external influences and situations.
Background: Sports and recreational tourism are forms of tourism that imply active involvement of tourists in various sports activities during their vacation, and it can be said that the main motive of such a vacation is a sport.
Objectives: This research aimed to determine the relationship between sports and recreational activities and tourist satisfaction based on the questionnaire related to the behaviour and satisfaction of tourists during their stay in Montenegro.
Methods/Approach: Regression analysis has been conducted in order to assess the interaction between sport-recreational activities and previous experience in Montenegro, and their effect on tourist revisit intention.
Results: Empirical results demonstrate the influence of sports and recreational services on tourist satisfaction measured by tourists’ revisit intentions. Distinguishing between sports, and health, spa and wellness facilities and services, the findings indicate that health, spa, and wellness facilities and services have a higher impact on revisit intention than sports activities. In addition, the interaction effect between different sports and recreational activities and previous experience in Montenegro did not provide a more amplified effect on tourist satisfaction.
Conclusions: Establishing closer links between workers who provide sports services and those providing other tourist services is one of the main challenges in the future of the development of sports tourism in Montenegro, as one of the most critical aspects that can provide tourist satisfaction. The data study can be used for more efficient and effective decision making and strategy development of sports and recreational activities in the tourism industry.