Variability in α-tocopherol concentration of husked and naked oat genotypes
Oat (Avena sativa L.) is recognised as a healthy food in the world. Oat contains significant amounts of fat-soluble vitamin E (α-tocopherol), a substance with high antioxidant activity. The main tasks of this study were to characterise the variability of α-tocopherol concentration of oat varieties and breeding lines bred in Latvia and foreign countries. Field trials were carried out at the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute in 2007 and 2008. Sixty four oat genotypes (52 husked and 12 naked) were tested for α-tocopherol using high-performance liquid-chromatography. The obtained results showed a wide range of α-tocopherol concentration among both husked and naked oat genotypes. The α-tocopherol concentration in husked oat varieties and lines varied from 3.2 to 8.4 mg kg-1and for naked oat from 5.5 to 8.8 mg kg-1. The wide range of α-tocopherol concentration in oat grown in Latvia showed that there is wide choice of material for breeding programmes and that further research should be carried out in future.
State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute: From the Origins to the Present
Agricultural science is closely linked to circumstances and specific features of development in each region. The State Stende Breeding Station, the first breeding station in independent Latvia, was founded ninety years ago with a goal to raise agricultural production in the country. The Stende Breeding Station was engaged in selection of crop varieties suitable for Latvian conditions, providing farmers with high-quality seeds and knowledge on the cultivation of these varieties. During the years of its existence, the station has witnessed changes in political power, underwent different forms of management and operated under various names. A number of outstanding scientists and agronomists have worked at Stende, including J. Lielmanis, E. Bērziņš, J. Garbars, N. Konrāds, R. Kude, I. Celma, I. Belicka, M. Gruntiņa and others, who have devoted their entire working lives to agricultural science and breeding. In 2006, the agricultural science centre of Stende was transformed into the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute. Breeding traditions, and cooperation with Latvian farmers, as well as accumulation of knowledge and experience of several generations of scholars is a frame for the existence of the Stende's institute. The most important contribution of Stende's breeders is 65 newly developed varieties of fifteen crop species. Today, the barley variety ‘Abava’, the winter wheat ‘Fredis’ and the spring wheat ‘Uffo’ are well known, not only in Latvia, but also abroad. The achievements of Stende's scientists have gained great appreciation from practicing farmers and agricultural policy makers.
Incorporation of whole grain, such as hulless barley, as a part of a balanced diet can help reduce the risk of coronary heart diseases, diabetes and specific cancers, and provide other health benefits as well. The objectives of this study were to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of grains of hulless barley genotypes from the Latvian spring barley programme. Field experiments were carried out in 2010-2011 at the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute. Grain samples of 29 hulless spring barley breeding lines were analysed for grain physical traits (1000 kernel weight, test weight), macronutrients (crude protein, starch, β -glucans), and micronutrients (total phenolic content, DPPH antiradical scavenging activity and α-tocopherol content). The variation of physical traits and macronutrients was mainly determined by genotype (ω2 = 32-62%) and year (η2 = 8-42%) and to a lesser extent by interaction of factors. The difference between hulless genotypes, as indicated the coefficient of variation, was rather high for all micronutrients (V% = 13.4-25.6). Significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation was detected between radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (r = 0.519) and starch content (r = 0.530). The best hulless breeding lines ‘1185’ and ‘IC 360’ (variety ‘Kornelija’ submitted for DUS and VCU tests) were selected for future usage in clinical investigations.
Consumption of dietary fibre has potential in improving nutrition and health. For further breeding of oats, it is necessary to increase knowledge on variation in the content of fibre and bioactive components in oats. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to study the extent of variation in β-glucan concentration of oats grown in Latvia and to evaluate association of β-glucan concentration with protein and fat concentration in newly created oat breeding lines. In 2015 and 2016, concentration of protein, fat, and β-glucan in grain of hulled oat varieties ‘Laima’, ‘Peppi’, and ten breeding lines was determined. The obtained results showed a wide range of fat concentration among varieties, with a range from 5.9 to 8.3%. The concentration of β-glucan ranged from 1.8 to 3.6% depending on the year. The β-glucan concentration had medium close positive correlation with lipid and weak significant positive correlation with protein concentration, which significantly differed among genotypes.
Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of applied nitrogen fertilizer rate on β-glucan content in oat (Avena sativa L.) grains. The study was carried out at the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute from 2011 to 2014. Three nitrogen surface fertiliser treatments (80, 120 and 160 kg·ha-1) were applied on one husked oat (variety 'Lizete') and two naked oat genotypes (breeding lines 'S-156' and '33793'). The content of β-glucan in naked oat genotypes was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in the husked genotype. The difference in β-glucan content between the naked breeding lines was not significant (p > 0.05). Significant (p < 0.05) differences in β-glucan content were observed between nitrogen treatments only for husked oat genotype 'Lizete'. Effect of growing season on β-glucan content was significant (p < 0.05) for both (naked and husked) oat genotypes. β-glucan content of naked oat breeding lines ('S-156' and '33793') was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 2011 comparing with 2012 and 2013, due to differences in precipitation during the grain filling period.
The objectives of the study were to investigate the variability of oat (Avena sativa L.) grain physical traits and chemical composition and to determine relationships between traits. Field experiments including five hulled oat genotypes were carried out at the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute for two seasons during 2010-2011. Variation of traits was mainly determined by genotype (ω2 = 53 - 88%), with the min/max values for 1000 kernel weight 32.4/36.5 g, test weight 470.0/507.9 g·L-1, hull content 215.4/265.6 g·kg-1, crude protein 110.0/124.9 g·kg-1, starch 456.9/483.0 g·kg-1, β-glucans 28.1/36.6 g·kg-1 and crude fat 46.2/60.0 g·kg-1. Oat variety ‘Arta’ had the highest test weight (507 g·L-1) and contents of crude protein (124.9 g·kg-1), β-glucans (36.5 g·kg-1), α-tocopherol (7.8 mg·kg-1), average crude fat (55.5 g·kg-1) and total phenolics (113.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/GAE 100 g-1 DM) in the grain. Expression of traits significantly depended on meteorological conditions in the specific year. In both years of investigation there were significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations between contents of β-glucans and crude fat, and negative correlation of β-glucans with starch content, total phenolics and antiradical scavenging activity.
The aim of the study was to determine concentrations of 13 macro and trace elements in different barley genotypes depending on the year of growth (2011, 2012, and 2013) and agricultural practice (conventional/organic). Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Al concentrations were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and K, Na, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistically different concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Zn occurred among genotypes; for Ca, Mn, and Fe concentrations between barley grains, grown conventionally and organically; for Cr and Ni concentrations between hulled and hull-less grain and for Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Al, K, and Na concentrations among the study years. Concentrations of potentially hazardous elements were low (Cd < 0.005–0.027, Pb 0.013–0.066, Cr 0.111–0.327, Ni 0.161–1.264, Cu 2.8–4.7 and Al 1.62–6.09 mg·kg−1). Barley products can provide necessary macro and trace elements, especially of Mn, Mg, Fe, and Zn (7.8–16.1; 1024–1249; 29.2–52.9, and 20.5–33.7 mg·kg−1, respectively).
Use of DNA markers for cereal line uniformity assessment
Prior to the registration of a new variety, it is required to undergo Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) testing. Preparing a newly developed variety to meet the requirements of DUS testing is a lengthy process, particularly regarding aspects of uniformity and stability. Field testing of a large number of lines is time and resource intensive. In addition, the expression of certain traits may be influenced by environmental conditions. The use of DNA markers may allow rapid assessment of the level of genetic diversity within a particular line or variety, and to remove individuals that are genetically differentiated, thus accelerating the homogenisation of a newly developed variety. In this study, we utilised AFLP and the iPBS marker techniques to assess genetic variation within advanced breeding lines of several cereal species (triticale, wheat, barley). The combined use of molecular and morphological selection over three years of analysis and selection resulted in the reduction of genetic diversity within breeding lines.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental variation of yield and food quality characteristics (protein, starch, β-glucan and husk content, test weight and thousand grain weight) of covered and hulless barley genotypes in organic management conditions. Two different field experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, hulless barley genotypes 'Kornelija', 'Irbe', '1165', '1185' and the covered varieties 'Ansis' and 'Maali' were studied in two locations in Latvia and in one location in Estonia during 2014. 'Ansis', ‘Kornelija', '1165' and '1185' were included in the second experiment carried out at Stende during three sequential years (2011-2013). The effect of genotype, environment (location and year) and co-effect of these factors contributed significantly to the variation in yield and grain quality traits of the barley genotypes. As a result of experimental treatments grain yield and quality traits varied by all tested factors. There were considerable differences in impact of studied sources of variation. Grain yield was influenced more by environmental factors than by genotype. Impact of genotype was highest for husk content and test weight. Integral evaluation method was carried out for comparison of barley genotypes to identify the best ones by the lowest deviation from the desired value. The covered barley variety 'Maali' showed good adaptation to different environmental conditions, having good yield, β-glucan content and high thousand grain weight. The line '1165' and variety 'Kornelija' showed best results among hulless barley varieties