Sanda-Maria Copotoiu and Ruxandra Copotoiu
Sanda-Maria Copotoiu and Ruxandra Copotoiu
Following the publication of the new definition of sepsis (Sepsis-3), a plethora of articles have been published in medical journals. Recognizing the epidemiological importance of the previous definitions, first issued in 1992 (Sepsis-1), and subsequently revised in 2001 (Sepsis-2), the most recent opinion emphasizes the failure “to provide adequate groups of patients with homogenous aetiologies, presentations and outcomes”, and blamed one of the causes “for the failure of several randomized controlled trials (RCTs), that tested the efficacy of adjuvant sepsis therapies”. This review summarizes the recent advances in sepsis definition.
Adrian Stănescu, Cristian Boeriu and Sanda-Maria Copotoiu
Background: The current study outlines some of the main particularities of both real and simulated mass casualty incidents (MCI) and disasters in Romania as reported by medical and paramedical participating personnel. Methods: A non-profit organization in Romania trained 1250 doctors, nurses and paramedics for proper MCI interventions through a dedicated programme for the last part of the year 2013. Half a year later, an email with a unique link to an online questionnaire was sent to each participant to assess their opinion over the participation in real or already simulated MCI or disasters. The questionnaire consisted of 25 specific topics, out of which only a fraction were considered for the current study. Results: Out of all participants, 145 doctors, 184 nurses and 115 paramedics provided valid answers, totaling 444 responders. Most participants were satisfied with the information about the location and type of the incident they would respond to. The amplitude of a given event is generally well anticipated under simulation conditions as compared to real events, where the amplitude tends to be higher rather than lower than expected (p=0.0082). About three quarters of participants under real or simulated events repeated or demanded repeating the information trafficked through mobile radios, almost a quarter misinterpreted the information, and almost a half reported delayed operations due to miscommunication. Conclusions: Simulations are a proper method of communication evaluation for mass casualty incidents and disasters, which can also stress the common communication issues encountered during a real MCI unfolding.
Alexandra Lazăr, J Szederjesi, Ruxandra Copotoiu, Sanda-Maria Copotoiu and L Azamfirei
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of Ropivacaine 0.5% and Lidocaine 0.5% anestethic combination in performing locoregional anesthesia, using either peripheral nerve stimulator or ultrasounds for brachial plexus block.
Study design: A prospective randomized clinical study was performed at the County Emergency Clinical Hospital of Tîrgu Mureș, between January and May 2013 on patients undergoing elective or emergency surgical interventions on upper limbs with locoregional anesthesia. Brachial plexus block with axillary approach was performed in 65 patients using randomly the nerve stimulator or the ultrasound guided technique. The parameters recorded were the duration of the anesthetic technique, the installation time and the length of anesthesia. All anesthetic incidents during and after anesthesia were observed as well. The recorded data were analyzed and statistically processed.
Results: We enrolled 40 (61.5%) patients for the nerve stimulation technique and 25 (38.5%) patients for ultrasound guidance. The quality of the block was acceptable, an inadequate anesthesia was reported in 9 patients (13.8%). The mean time of installation of anesthesia was 34.36 (± 11.56) minutes, time recorded from the initiation of the anesthetic technique until complete motor block. The mean duration of the motor block was 481.3 (± 128.6) minutes which represents over 8 hours. None of the patients required conversion of the anesthesia due to the extended period of the surgical intervention. One patient presented a mild allergic reaction to the anesthetic drugs.
Conclusion: Combination of the ropivacaine and lidocaine can be safely used for locoregional anesthesia, especially in those cases where long surgical intervention time is anticipated or in order to achieve a better postoperative analgesia
Cristian Russu, Călin Molnar, Sanda Maria Copotoiu, Claudiu Sărăcuț, Mircea Gherghinescu, Varlam Claudiu Molnar and Constantin Copotoiu
Introduction: Surgical treatment for low rectal cancer represents a challenge: to perform a radical resection and to preserve the sphincter’s function. We report a case of intersphincteric resection in a combined multimodality treatment for low rectal cancer, with good oncologic and functional outcome. Case presentation: We report a case of a 73 years old woman admitted in April 2014 in surgery, for low rectal cancer. The diagnostic was established by colonoscopy and malignancy confirmed by biopsy. Complete imaging was done using computed tomography and magnetic resonance to establish the exact stage of the disease. The interdisciplinary individualized treatment began with radiotherapy (total dose of 50 Gy, administered in 25 fractions) followed by surgery after eight weeks. We performed intersphincteric rectal resection by a modified Schiessel technique. There were no postoperative complications and the oncologic and functional results were very good at one year follow up. Conclusions: Intersphincteric resection, in this selected case of low rectal cancer, represented an efficient surgical treatment, with good functional results and quality of life for the patient. A multidisciplinary team is an invaluable means of assessing and further managing the appropriate, tailored to the case, treatment in the aim of achieving best results.
Daniel – Emil Albu, Monica Copotoiu, Răzvan Melinte, Tiberiu Băţagă and Sanda-Maria Copotoiu
Background: The main target after successful AnteriorCruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction is early rehabilitation. New options such as PRP (platelet rich plasma) may improve clinical outcomes.
Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate two consecutive series of patients who underwent ACL reconstruction, one with PRP treatment and one without it.
Material and method: Two groups of consecutive patients underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, using the SemiT and BPTB techniques. Postoperatively all patients included in this study followed the same standardized rehabilitation protocol. In addition, patients in the first group received three intraarticular PRP injections as auxiliary therapy. Injections were performed at week two, four and six. The patients were evaluated at enrolment and every four and twelve weeks using the Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale (Scoring Scale: poor <65/ fair 65-83 / good 84-90 / excellent > 90). Each patient was operated on and evaluated afterwards by the same team of surgeons.
Results: At 12 weeks interval, Group A had a higher mean clinical score than Group B (94.67 vs 92.50) although marginally not statistically significant (p=0.0503, 95% CI: −4.336 to 0.002911). Regarding pain in patients from Group A compared with patients from Group B, we saw a statistically significant difference at 4 weeks interval (16.90 vs. 18.89, p=0.0370, 95% CI: 0.1260 to 3.842) and no significant difference at 12 weeks interval (21.19 vs. 21.94, p=0.3744, 95%CI: −0.9452 to 2.453). In terms of swelling points scored between the two groups, there was no statistically significant difference at 4 week interval (5.048 vs. 4.00, p=0.1979, 95% CI: −2.667 to 0.5714) but there is a significant difference in favor of patients from Group A at 12 weeks interval (8.475 vs. 5.556, p=0.0002, 95% CI: −4.323 to −1.159).
Conclusions: In the short term, the local treatment showed improvement on the overall clinical status of the patients (less pain, improved mobility, less swelling) undergoing rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction, although further studies are required.
Benedek Orsolya, Dobreanu Minodora, Azamfirei Leonard, Veres Mihaly and Copotoiu Sanda-Maria
Trauma affects the activity of the innate immune system. The objective of this case report is to present the case that prompted us to analyse all the peripheral white blood cell lines. A 19 year old male patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Clinic with severe head trauma. The final diagnosis was set to be severe cerebral trauma with subarachnoid hemorrhage, right frontal and temporal cerebral contusions, diffuse cerebral edema, left parietal and temporal fracture, sphenoid hemosinus and right sided lung contusions.
Material and Method: Whole blood was immediatly analyzed by flow cytometry for leukocytes. Apoptosis was detected with Annexin V, necrotic cells were stained with propidium iodide. Samples were drawn three consecutive days.
Results: Lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes all showed marked increase in viability and decrease in necrosis during the biological monitoring in correlation with a positive clinical outcome. The most important changes were noted in the monocyte population.
Discussion: Although we started out monitoring neutrophil viability and death, this particular case prompted us not to overlook other leucocyte populations.
Conclusion: The apparent positive relationship between this patient’s positive clinical outcome and cellular viability and death changes is promising but they warrant further study.
Dan Sebastian Dîrzu, Natalia Hagău, Theodor Boţ, Loredana Fărcaş and Sanda Maria Copotoiu
Introduction: Training for cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a very important topic for society, trainers and researchers. However it is not yet established who should be trained and by whom nor how the training programmes should be accomplished. We developed a study to evaluate an existing programme where medical students train high school students in cardiopulmonary resuscitation using instrumented mannequins to teach and collect performance data.
Method: The students of four randomly selected high school classes were trained by four randomly selected medical students and were evaluated by an independent evaluator. The level of knowledge provided and the level of technical skills acquired were analysed.
Results: One hour of lecturing was enough to increase the mean of correct answers from 39.52% to 78.48% when we tested knowledge. Testing for skills retention we found that that 92.75% of trained students taped the shoulder; 95.65% asked loudly “Are you all right?” at the right moment; 97.1% shouted for help at the right moment, the entire group remembered to check the breathing at the right moment, and 92.75% executed a correct head tilt chin lift manoeuvre; 86.9% remembered to call 112 at the right moment. Automatic recordings showed that mean flow fraction was 80.74%, mean no flow time was 18.9 seconds, mean frequency of chest compressions was 134.7/min and mean compression depth was 39.06 mm.
Conclusions: The results showed that high school students achieved a good level of knowledge and acceptable cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills when trained by medical students.
Daniel–Emil Albu, Copotoiu Monica, Jeremias Cristina, Susca Mihaela, Melinte Răzvan, Băţagă Tiberiu and Copotoiu Sanda-Maria
Background: The main target of the structural damage in osteoarthritisis the hyaline cartilage. New options such as PRP (platelet rich plasma) may cause structural improvement of the cartilage.
Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the evolution of the patients with knee osteoarthritis on PRP treatment.
Material and method: The patients with osteoarthritis were evaluated at enrolment and every three months by ultrasound knee ecography. A semi-quantitative knee ultrasound score was applied to monitor changes before and after the treatment. The score was composed by the presence of the following: bursitis (1 point), hypoechogenic changes at the level of the hyaline cartilage in the anterior transversal window (1 point), asymmetrical narrowing of the cartilage (1 point), the involvement of the medial cartilage in the longitudinal approach (1 point), the involvement of lateral cartilage in the longitudinal approach (1 point) and the presence of step up lesions – osteophytes (1 point The evaluation was performed independently by two separate physicians. Another ultrasound - trained doctor was analysing all the images.
Results: Twenty - nine patients were included in our study; with one patient excluded due to masive bursitis. No differences were found concerning the pathological findings between the first two evaluators (p: 0.1250). So far, only nine patients have been evaluated at three months, and we were unable to find any improvements or worsening concerning the ultrasound alterations (p: 0.0625). The ultrasound lack of modifications was not correlated with the functional status of the subjects.
Conclusions: In the short term, the local treatment showed no improvement on structural damage, but it improved the overall status of the patients (less pain, improved mobility, a better quality of life).