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  • Author: Samuel Okwudili Onoja x
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Samuel Okwudili Onoja, Samuel Chukwuneke Udem and Aruh Ottah Anaga


Introduction: The study evaluated the ameliorative effects of Helianthus annuus leaf extract on nephrotoxicity, cardiac, and haematologic disorders in alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats.

Material and Methods: The cold maceration method with 80% methanol was used in the preparation of H. annuus extract. Thirty alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats were randomly assigned to five equal groups (A–E). Groups A and B received 5% tween-20 solution in water (5 mL/kg) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg), respectively; while groups C, D, and E received 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg of the extract, respectively, per os once daily for 21 consecutive days. The levels of serum urea, creatinine, haematological indices, and histopathological changes in the kidneys and heart were evaluated 24 h after the last treatment on day 21.

Results: The extract and glibenclamide significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the levels of serum urea and urea : creatinine ratio in diabetic rats when compared with the vehicle treated group. The extract and glibenclamide also ameliorated haematological disorders and kidney and cardiac damage induced by alloxan.

Conclusion: H. annuus extract produced nephroprotective, cardioprotective, and haematoprotective effects and might prevent the advancement of diabetic complications such as diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients.

Open access

Ikpa Chinyere Benardette Chinaka, Onoja Samuel Okwudili and Dozie-Akaniro Ijeoma Nkiru


The study investigated the bioactive constituents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Platycerium bifucartum leaves. Chloroform fraction of P. bifurcatum was prepared by partitioning the ethanol extract with chloroform and water. The phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. Fourier transformer-infrared (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) were used in the characterization of the bioactive compounds. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the chloroform fraction were evaluated using standard protocols. The fourier transformer-infrared analysis showed the presence of C=O, OH, CHO, C-F and -NH functional groups. GC/MS characterization gave benzeneethaneamine (33.3%), 2-amino-1-(4-methylphenyl) propane (17.04%), hydroxyurea (30.26%) and epinephrine (13.26). The extract inhibited the growth of the bacterial isolates. The fraction exhibited antioxidant properties that were comparable with ascorbic acid. The presence of these compounds showed that the leaves of Platycerium bifurcatum can be used for the treatment of some bacterial diseases.