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  • Author: Samuel O. Onoja x
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Abstract

Heliangolide is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone and its derivatives are biologically active compounds present in most medicinal plants. This study evaluated the antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of a heliangolide sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Helianthus annuus L. leaves. The heliangolide sesquiterpene lactone was isolated through a combination of solvent-solvent partitioning, column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. The antioxidant activity of the compound was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays while the antidiabetic effects were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The heliangolide derivative at the concentration of 954.2 µmol L−1 showed 23.7 % DPPH and 26 % nitric oxide radical inhibitions compared with 96.6 and 50.9 %, resp., displayed by the controls (2,271.2 µmol L−1). It also reduced the fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in a time-dependent manner. The highest activity was recorded within 6 h post-treatment at 0.2 mmol kg−1 bm. The heliangolide derivative exhibited significant (p < 0.05) antioxidant and antidiabetic properties and provides a basis for further development of constituents of Helianthus annuus leaves for the management of such diseases.

Abstract

This study evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Helianthus annuus Linn. in rats. Methanol extract of Helianthus annuus (HAE) leaf was used in this study. Formalin- and egg-albumin induced-paw edema were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities while acetic acid-induced writhing reflex and tail flick models were used to evaluate the analgesic properties. The doses of HAE used were 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used as reference drug in the anti-inflammatory and writhing reflex models while pentazocine (reference drug) was used in tail flick model. The negative control was dosed 5% tween-20 (10 ml/kg). The HAE exhibited significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. At 3 hour (h) post treatment, the HAE (300 mg/kg) produced 33.33% and 32.94% while ASA produced 36.36% and 35.29% reduction in paw volume in the formalin and egg-albumin induced paw edema models respectively when compared with negative control. In the acetic acid-induced writhing reflex, ASA and HAE (600 mg/kg) produced 67.89% and 35.78% reduction in the number of writhing, respectively when compared with the negative control. Pentazocine and HAE (300 mg/kg) caused 67.62% and 35.24% increase in pain reaction time when compared with the negative control. The study affirms the folkloric uses of Helianthus annuus in the management of pain and inflammation.

Abstract

This study evaluated the hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and anti-lipid peroxidation properties of a methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata root-bark, in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. The extract of P. pinnata root-bark was prepared using a cold maceration method with 80% methanol and concentrated at 40°C in hot air oven. The extract was administered once daily per os at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days. Distilled water (5 mL/kg) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) were used as the vehicle and reference standard, respectively. The serum lipid profile, markers of liver and kidney functions, antioxidant status (malondialdehyde level, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities), histopathological changes in liver and kidney were examined 24h after the last treatment on day 21. The extract reduced serum lipid profile, markers of liver and kidney functions of treated rats relative to vehicle-treated rats. The superoxide dismutase and catalase activities of the extract treated rats were also elevated relative to the vehicle-treated rats. The extract reversed liver and kidney injuries induced by alloxan in the treated rats. This study provides some basic information which suggest that P. pinnata could be effective in managing diabetic complications.

Abstract

Gastric ulcer is one of the common cause of hospital consultation with an increasing prevalence worldwide and it is traditionally managed with herbal medicine in the developing countries. This study investigated the gastroprotective effects of methanol extract of Eremomastax speciosa leaf in rats. Cold maceration in 80% methanol was adopted during extract preparation while gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was employed in the phytochemical analysis. The doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg E. speciosa were used on ethanol-and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in rats. The shay rat method was used to determine the effects of ESE on gastric acidity while the anticholinergic and antihistaminic activities were investigated on isolated rabbit jejunum ex vivo. The GC-MS analysis identified six bioactive compounds. Both ESE and cimetidine significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the severity of indomethacin- and ethanol-induced gastric injuries and gastric acid contents in Shay rats. The extract elicited concentration-dependent relaxation of isolated rabbit jejunum and reduced the contraction induced by both acetylcholine and histamine in the same tissue. The findings showed that ESE protected the rats against chemical-induced gastric ulcer through anticholinergic and antihistaminic mechanisms.