In Europe, as in the rest of industrialized countries, reforms of the labour market have generally concerned employment protection legislation (EPL). One of the main missions of this legislation is to insure security for workers, particularly in case of redundancy. The object of this article is to compare the strictness and the degree of rigidity of EPL in two different economies, namely, Canada and France. This choice is justified by the fact that the labour market policies in both countries do not have the same orientation and are based on different ideological references.
The unemployment compensation system is at the centre of the current economic and political debate in many Western countries which, under the effects of the increase in public debt, must decide the level of their unemployment insurance while taking into account its impact on the performance of the labour market. In this article, we compare the generosity of such public policy in France and in Canada, while focusing on the experience of central and eastern Europe. By building a composite index, we show that the French unemployment insurance is more generous only in pecuniary terms, and not in its qualitative dimension.
We use a matching model in which the horizontal job differentiation results from the rationale response of firms to the state of the labor market. We show that a decrease in the labor market tightness gives firms an incentive to raise the differentiation degree of jobs. Comparative statics suggests that an increase in unemployment benefits and in the minimum wage improves productivity of skilled workers by making jobs more differentiated, and leads to a raise in unemployment rate.
As part of their struggle against inequality and social exclusion, many countries are trying to reform their redistributive system and low-income support measures to encourage return to work, and reduce inactivity traps. The purpose of this article is to propose a reflection on the social and fiscal policies. The analysis focuses on three measures in three different countries: the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) in the United States, the Working Tax Credit (WTC) in the UK and the Active Solidarity Income (RSA) in France. The emphasis is placed on the effects of such policies on the situation of single parents, in particular as part of their transition from welfare (social assistance) to the labor market.