Using energy dissipaters on the soled aprons downstream of head structures is the main technique for accelerating hydraulic jump formation and dissipating a great amount of the residual harmful kinetic energy occurring downstream of head structures. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to investigate some untested shapes of curved dissipaters with different angles of curvature and arrangements from two points of view. The first is to examine its efficiency in dissipating the kinetic water energy. The second is to examine the most effective shape and arrangement obtained from the aforementioned step in enriching the flow with dissolved oxygen for enhancement of the irrigation water quality. The study was held in the irrigation and hydraulic laboratory of the Civil Department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, using a movable bed tilting channel 20 m long, 30 cm wide, and 50 cm high, using 21 types of curved dissipaters with different arrangements. A total of 660 runs were carried out. Results were analysed, tabulated and graphically presented, and new formulas were introduced to estimate the energy dissipation ratio, as well as the DO concentrations. Results in general showed that the dissipater performance is more tangible in dissipating the residual energy when the curvature is in the opposite direction to that of the flow. Also, the energy loss ratio increases with an increase in curvature angle (θ), until it reaches (θ = 120°), then it decreases again. The study also showed that using three rows of dissipaters give nearly the same effect as using four rows, concerning both the relative energy dissipation and dissolved oxygen content. So, it is recommended to use three rows of the curved dissipater with the angle of curvature (θ = 120°) in the opposite direction to that of the flow to obtain the maximum percentage of water energy dissipation downstream of head structures, and maximum dissolved oxygen content too
One of the most important problems Egypt is facing nowadays is saving and controlling the limited available quantity of water and its quality for irrigation and other purposes. Such goals may be achieved through different types of diversion head structures across the river and in the entrance of other carrying canals. The construction of diversion head structures, which usually causes many technical problems, should have the objective of solving and overcoming to protect the structure from failure. The main problem occurs downstream. Such structures have the harmful effect of converting the potential energy gained in the upstream side to a kinetic energy in the downstream side. This energy must be dissipated shortly and safely as near as possible to the head structure to avoid its destructive effect. The hydraulic jump is the most effective tool for the dissipation of water energy, accelerating the forming of the hydraulic jump downstream such structures became essential for achieving our main goal. Using energy dissipaters on the soled apron in the downstream side of the structures was the main technique for accelerating the hydraulic jump formation and dissipating great amount of the residual harmful kinetic energy occurring downstream head structures. So early, many researchers investigated different types, shapes, and arrangements of such dissipaters to evaluate its efficiency in dissipating the water energy and accelerating the forming of the hydraulic jump. In fact, in our present study we will try to investigate some other shapes of energy dissipaters, which have not been studied enough, by evaluating its positive technical impact on: (i) percentage value of dissipating kinetic water energy; (ii) percentage value of increasing the dissolved oxygen (DO) content in the irrigation water, and improving its quality. The study is proposed to be held in the irrigation and hydraulic laboratory of the Civil department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, using a movable bed tilting channel 20 m long, 30 cm wide, and 50 cm high, using fourteen types of curved dissipaters with different arrangements as shown in Table 2. It is worth mentioning that, in this first part of our paper, we will introduce a comparative analysis for the efficiency of different types of energy dissipaters available in the literature review. The most effective types of the previously studied dissipaters will be put in a comparison with our new dissipaters from the two above mentioned points of view, and the results will be presented in the second part of this paper later.