We investigated the structural and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as the n-type semiconductor. In this work, the sol–gel method used to fabricate ZnO thin film on glass substrate with 0.5 mol/l of zinc acetate dehydrates. The crystals quality of the thin film analyzed by X-ray diffraction and the optical transmittance was carried out by an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The DRX analyses indicated that ZnO film have polycrystalline nature and hexagonal wurtzite structure with (002) preferential orientation and the measured average crystallite size of ZnO of 207.9 nm. The thin film exhibit average optical transparency about 90 %, in the visible region, found that optical band gap energy was 3.282 eV, the Urbach energy also was calculated from optical transmittance to optimal value is 196.7 meV.
In this work, the In2O3 thin films have been fabricated using a spin coating technique; this technique was prepared in our laboratory. The effect of the layer times (3, 5, 7 and 9 times) on optical and structural properties was investigated. In2O3 thin films were fabricated by dissolving 0.2 M of the indium chloride dehydrate InCl3.2H2O in the absolute H2O. The In2O3 thin films were crystallized at a temperature of 600 °C with pending time of 1 hour. The optical property shows that the prepared In2O3 thin films for 3 and 5 times have a transmission of about 85 %. The maximum bandgap energy was 3.69 eV for 5 times and the lowest Urbach energy was 0.47 eV for 9 times. From XDR all fabricated In2O3 thin films having one diffraction crystal plan is (222) peak intensity, this attribution have good crystalline structure with minimum crystallite size of the (222) plan is 59.69 nm. The prepared In2O3 thin films can be used in photovoltaic applications due to the existing phase and higher transmission.
In this work, nickel oxide was fabricated on glass substrate at 450 °C by spray pyrolysis technique. The NiO layers were obtained with 0.05M molarity, which were deposited by various deposition rates 20, 40, 60 and 80 ml. The effects of deposition rate on the structural, electrical and optical properties were examined. All fabricated NiO thin films were observed a nanocrystalline a cubic structure with a strong (111) preferred orientation, it is only phase was observed in all deposited NiO. The film elaborated with 60 ml have a minimum value of crystallite size was 15.8 nm. All NiO thin films have an average transmittance is about 70 % in the visible region. The NiO thin films have a verity in the band gap energy from 3.34 to 3.51 eV because the effect of deposition, the minimum value was found at 80 ml, this condition have a lowest Urbach energy. The NiO thin films have an electrical resistivity was decreased from 0.625 to 0.152 (Ω.cm) with increasing the deposition rate from 20 to 80ml. The best results of NiO thin films are obtained in the deposition NiO films by 40 and 80 ml.
In this work, copper doped nickel oxide as the thin films have been elaborated by a spin coating method, the nickel chloride hexahydrate (0.8M) and copper (II) chloride dehydrate (Cu/Ni = 0, 2.15, 4.3, 8.6 and 12.9 At.%) were used to prepare the Cu doped NiO thin films. The Cu doped NiO thin films were heated at a crystallization temperature of 600 °C with 2 h. The obtained thin films by spin coater method have a film thickness in the order of 400 nm. The prepared Cu doped NiO thin films have a polycrystalline with cubic structure (200) peak was observed. The optical property shows that the prepared thin films have a transmittance of about 70 %. The Cu doped NiO thin films have minimum bandgap energy is 3.85 eV at 12.9 at.%, the thin film deposited at 8.6 at.% has the highest value of Urbach energy is 425 meV. The Cu doped NiO thin films have a high electrical conductivity of 8.6 at% it is 7 (Ω.cm)−1. The prepared Cu doped NiO thin film was suitable for gas sensing applications due to the existing phase and higher electrical conductivity.