Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) has a relatively low level of entrepreneurial activity as evidenced by GEM reports but also has an economic structure in which SMEs account for about 99% of the total number of enterprises. The goal of this paper was to examine the level of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and influence of EO on business performances of SMEs in the Republic of Srpska (RS), one of the two BiH entities, in which the empirical research was done. We have used adapted Covin & Slevin (1989) version of the questionnaire. We found out that only 12.28% of sampled SMEs have all three dimensions of EO pronounced. The least pronounced dimension is risk-taking and the most pronounced dimension is proactiveness. Our research did not confirm the impact of EO on selected indicators of business performances.
Titanium dioxide in our everyday life; is it safe?
Background. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is considered as an inert and safe material and has been used in many applications for decades. However, with the development of nanotechnologies TiO2 nanoparticles, with numerous novel and useful properties, are increasingly manufactured and used. Therefore increased human and environmental exposure can be expected, which has put TiO2 nanoparticles under toxicological scrutiny. Mechanistic toxicological studies show that TiO2 nanoparticles predominantly cause adverse effects via induction of oxidative stress resulting in cell damage, genotoxicity, inflammation, immune response etc. The extent and type of damage strongly depends on physical and chemical characteristics of TiO2 nanoparticles, which govern their bioavailability and reactivity. Based on the experimental evidence from animal inhalation studies TiO2 nanoparticles are classified as "possible carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and as occupational carcinogen by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The studies on dermal exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles, which is in humans substantial through the use of sunscreens, generally indicate negligible transdermal penetration; however data are needed on long-term exposure and potential adverse effects of photo-oxidation products. Although TiO2 is permitted as an additive (E171) in food and pharmaceutical products we do not have reliable data on its absorption, distribution, excretion and toxicity on oral exposure. TiO2 may also enter environment, and while it exerts low acute toxicity to aquatic organisms, upon long-term exposure it induces a range of sub-lethal effects.
Conclusions. Until relevant toxicological and human exposure data that would enable reliable risk assessment are obtained, TiO2 nanoparticles should be used with great care.
The investigation was aimed to evaluate the effects of 3-weeks swimming exercise on blood pressure and redox status in high-salt-induced hypertensive rats. Male Wistar albino rats (n=40, 6 weeks old) were divided into 4 groups: 1. hypertensive rats that swam for 3 weeks; 2. sedentary hypertensive control rats; 3. normotensive rats that swam for 3 weeks; 4. sedentary normotensive control rats. Hypertensive animals were on high concentrated sodium (8% NaCl) solution for 4 weeks (period of induction of hypertension). After sacrificing, hearts were isolated and perfused according to Langendorff technique at gradually increased coronary per-fusion pressure from 40–120 cmH2O. The oxidative stress markers were determined in coronary venous effluent: the index of lipid peroxidation (measured as TBARS), nitrites (NO2−), superoxide anion radical (O2−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Swimming did not lead to significant changes in levels of TBARS, NO2−, O2− in any of compared groups while levels of H2O2 were significantly higher in swimming hyper-tensive group comparing to swimming normotensive group at coronary perfusion pressure of 80–120 cmH2O. Our results indicate that the short-term swimming start to reduce blood pressure. In addition it seems that this type of swimming duration does not promote cardiac oxidative stress damages.