Acute damage to the kidney is a serious complication in patients in intensive care units. The causes of acute kidney damage in these patients may be prerenal, renal and postrenal. Sepsis is the most common cause of the development of acute kidney damage in intensive care units. For the definition and classification of acute kidney damage in clinical practice, the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO classifications are used. There is a complex link between acute kidney damage and other organs. Acute kidney damage is induced by complex pathophysiological mechanisms that cause acute damage and functional disorders of the heart (acute heart failure, acute coronary syndrome and cardiac arrhythmias), brain (whole body cramps, ischaemic stroke and coma), lung (acute damage to the lung and acute respiratory distress syndrome) and liver (hypoxic hepatitis and acute hepatic insufficiency). New biomarkers, colour Doppler ultrasound diagnosis and kidney biopsy have significant roles in the diagnosis of acute kidney damage. Prevention of the development of acute kidney damage in intensive care units includes maintaining an adequate haemodynamic status in patients and avoiding nephrotoxic drugs and agents (radiocontrast agents). The complications of acute kidney damage (hyperkalaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypervolaemia and azotaemia) are treated with medications, intravenous solutions, and therapies for renal function replacement. Absolute indications for acute haemodialysis include resistant hyperkalaemia, severe metabolic acidosis, resistant hypervolaemia and complications of high azotaemia. In the absence of an absolute indication, dialysis is indicated for patients in intensive care units at stage 3 of the AKIN/KDIGO classification and in some patients with stage 2. Intermittent haemodialysis is applied for haemodynamically stable patients with severe hyperkalaemia and hypervolaemia. In patients who are haemodynamically unstable and have liver insufficiency or brain damage, continuous modalities of treatment for renal replacement are indicated.
In the past, it was enough for the airport to have a runway and a modest terminal. The development of air traffic has also increased customer requirements (passengers, airlines, etc.), which has affected the need for airport infrastructure development. Throughout the world, passenger terminals have been built, many of which, according to architectural solutions, represent works of art. The design and functionality are tailored in such a way as to enable longer stay and meet the requirements of passengers and other users. Content and concept offer solutions that airport operators provide for additional revenue. One part of the content and service is offered in passenger terminal buildings, while the other part is provided outside them, whether in or outside the airport. Part of this content is offered by Airport City (AC). AC phenomenon represents the integration of infrastructure, superstructures, information and operations. It represents a part of the Supply Chain (SC) and usually includes facilities such as: passenger terminals, runways and other airport activities such as: ground handling, logistics, office space, shops, hotels, etc. In this paper, authors use a method of systems theory, a modeling method and a comparative method as a general and some specific scientific methods of cognition, to researching the problem to which different AC models and their structure can contribute to the optimal SC flow as its essential part and bring the results of the AC phenomenon as a part of the SC.
The high rate of injury incidence and its severity is estimated to cause approximately 9% of global mortality, while a large proportion of people surviving their injuries experience temporary or permanent disabilities. To reduce the occurrence of disability and improve general health of survivors, a more comprehensive rehabilitation approach is needed. Motor imagery is recognized as the promising cognitive strategy to counteract impaired functional capacity of the neuromuscular system. Thus, we aimed to provide to the Slovenian-speaking community a valid and reliable version of Motor Imagery Questionnaire – 3 [MIQ-3], that consists of kinaesthetic imagery [KI] and visual [i.e., Internal Imagery [IMI] and external imagery [EVI]] items.
We investigated both absolute and relative test-retest repeatability; construct validity and internal consistency of the KI, IMI and EMI items of the Slovenian version of MIQ-3 in 86 healthy adult subjects.
Results showed high to very high average intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] for the visual items [ICC=0.89] and KI items [ICC=0.92], whilst the measure of absolute variability presented as coefficient of variation [CV%] ranged from 4.9% [EVI] to 6.7% [KI]. The internal consistency was satisfactory [Cronbach α=0.91 [KI] and 0.89]) for both visual items. Confirmatory analysis confirmed a two-factorial structure of MIQ-3.
Understanding the content of the questionnaire is of utmost importance to ensure its effectiveness in rehabilitation practice. The Slovenian translation of the MIQ-3 is culturally and linguistically equivalent to the original English version.