E.K. Eifediyi, F.O. Ogedegbe, N.B. Izuogu, C.A. Adedokun, A. Katibi and S.U. Remison
The Guinea savannah zone of Nigeria is beset by increasing population and infrastructural development, thereby putting pressure on available land with rapidly declining fertility due to low organic matter content, soil erosion, high temperature and seasonal bush burning. Sesame is cultivated in this zone and the yield has remained very low, compared to yield in other parts of the world. This could be attributed to poor nutrient status and poor cultural practices used by peasant farmers. A field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ilorin, Nigeria, in a southern Guinea savannah zone in 2015 and repeated in 2016 cropping season to determine the effects of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a plant growth regulator and NPK fertilizer on the growth and yield of sesame. The experiment was laid out as a factorial arrangement, fitted into a randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The factors imposed were 2,4-D (0, 5 and 10 ppm ha−1) and NPK 15:15:15 (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha−1). Data were collected on vegetative traits (plant height, number of leaves, leaf area) and yield components (number of capsules per plant; yield per plant and per hectare). The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the Genstat statistical package 17th edition and significant means were separated by using the least significant difference at 5% level of probability. The result revealed that using plant growth regulator and NPK fertilizer had significant effects (p<0.05) on plant height (151 cm) and yield per hectare (530 kg/ha). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the seeds further reaffirmed the presence of bioactive compounds, such as saponins, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which are important health promoting food in the seeds.
E.K. Eifediyi, H.E. Ahamefule, S.U. Remison, T.H. Aliyu and N. Akanbi
Soils of the southern Guinea savannah zone of Nigeria are low in organic matter content, inherently infertile due to intensive weathering and leaching caused by high temperature and rainfall. A field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ilorin, during the 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, to determine the effect of neem seed cake and NPK fertilizer on the performance of sesame crop (Ex Sudan cv). Treatments consisted of three levels of NPK fertilizer 20:10:10, applied at 0, 100 and 200 kg ha−1 and neem seed cake (NSC), applied at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 t ha−1. The experiment was laid out in a 3 x 5 factorial arrangement replicated thrice. Data were collected on soil parameters (some physical and chemical properties), plant growth parameters (plant height, number of leaves and leaf area) and yield components (number of capsules per plant, weight of seeds per plant and weight of seeds per hectare). The result of the study indicated that using the highest level of application of NPK fertilizer, neem seed cake and their combinations significantly (p<0.05) increased the growth of sesame plants, in the 2 years of study. However, the 100 kg ha−1 of NPK and 3 tha−1 and their combinations gave the highest yield and yield components of sesame during the period of study. The result of the study revealed that using high levels of NPK, neem seed cake and their combinations favoured vegetative growth at the expense of seed formation. Farmers are therefore encouraged to use organic and inorganic fertilizer moderately to prevent excessive vegetative growth of sesame.