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S. Kim and H. Lee

Boundary element modelling of wave diffraction by interaction with wave-offshore structure and dredged region

The purpose of this study is to estimate the wave height at the front face of breakwater (Refracted breakwater and Straight breakwater), when dredging like the submarine pit is performed in the distant offshore from outer breakwater. The wave field of the problem is considered to be two dimensional planes and the configuration of the pit region is designated by a single horizontal long-rectangular system. The numerical approach uses the Green function based on the boundary integral approach. The results of the present numerical works are illustrated by applying the normal and inclined incidence. It is shown that in the case of normal incidence, the ratio of wave height reduction at the front face of both types of breakwaters is approximately more than 20% due to the effect of the submarine pit on the sea bed. Furthermore, regardless of the type of breakwater and the difference in incident wave angles, the ratio of wave height was shown to be reduced.

Open access

S. Won and K. Kim

An integrated framework for various operation plans in container terminals

This study provides a framework for integrating various planning activities in container terminals. First, we introduce various planning activities in container terminals and identify decision-making problems for each planning activity. Input parameters, decision variables, objectives, constraints, time buckets, and the planning horizon for each decision activity are identified. Next, we introduce the concept of a resource profile and planning procedure simultaneously by considering availabilities of various resources and resource requirements in a planning activity.

Open access

H.-S. Cho and S.-S. Kim

Abstract

This work investigates the effect of a frequency selective surface (FSS) composed of a regular array of square loop elements on the absorption properties of grounded ferrite composites. Polymer matrix composites of CoZnW hexaferrite powders having small magnetic loss were used as the substrate material. Computational tools were used to model the interaction between electromagnetic waves and materials and determine the reflection coefficient. Reflection loss and bandwidth were greatly improved by attaching an FSS with controlled electrical resistance (R) onto the grounded ferrite composites. For the FSS with R = 800 Ω, the minimum reflection loss decreased to −25 dB at 10 GHz and the bandwidth was broadened to 7.5-12.5 GHz with respect to −10 dB reflection loss.

Open access

S.-Y. Kim, M.-H. Lee, T.-S. Kim and B.-S. Kim

Abstract

Porous metallic materials have been widely used in many fields including aerospace, atomic energy, electro chemistry and environmental protection. Their unique structures make them very useful as lightweight structural materials, fluid filters, porous electrodes and catalyst supports. In this study, we fabricated Ni-based porous metallic glasses having uniformly dispersed micro meter pores by the sequential processes of ball-milling and chemical dissolution method. We investigated the application of our porous metal supported for Pt catalyst. The oxidation test was performed in an atmosphere of 1% CO and 3% O2. Microstructure observation was performed by using a scanning electron microscope. Oxidation properties and BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) were analyzed to understand porous structure developments. The results indicated that CO Oxidation reaction was dependent on the specific surface area.

Open access

K. S. Kang, C. S. Kim and Y. A. El-Kassaby

Abstract

Acorn production was surveyed for eight consecutive years (2000-2007) in a 94-clone Sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima) seed orchard established in 1992. Acorn production commenced in 2000 and peaked in 2005 and was characterized by a 3-4 years interval. Sixty out of the orchard’s 94 clones were consistent producers across the study period. Acorn production’s Pearson productmoment and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were significant and consistently positive over the eight years study period. Parental cumulative reproductive output, represented by parental balance curves, slightly varied among mast years and showed steady improvement (less distortion) over years. Effective population size (Np) was high in moderate and good acorn production years; however, departure from clonal equal contribution was observed throughout the study period. Parental effective population size was estimated under various scenarios of male fecundity (pollen production is: 1) proportional to clone size, 2) equal to female contribution, and 3) equal across all clones) resulted in high Np and low group co-ancestry under equal male fecundity scenario while moderate Np size and group co-ancestry were observed when male fecundity was assumed to be proportional to clone size (i.e., ramet number).

Open access

K.S. Kim and J.Y. Kim

Abstract

Heat pipes have been recently in use for cooling purposes in various fields, including electronic circuit boards and vehicle parts that generate large amounts of heat. In order to minimize the loss of heat transferred, there is a need to maximize the contact area of the working fluid. This study produced a square tube multi-channel heat pipe to replace the existing circular pipe type to maximize the internal surface area thereof. This expands the surface, allowing the working fluid to come into contact with a wider area and enhancing thermal radiation performance. A mold for the production for such a product was designed, and finite element simulation was performed to determine whether production is possible.

Open access

S.-W. Kim, T.-Y. Ahn, Y.-S. Lim and S.-S. Hwang

Abstract

This work aims to study the stress corrosion crack growth behavior of cold-rolled Alloy 690 in the primary water of a pressurized water reactor. Compared with Alloy 600, which shows typical intergranular cracking along high angle grain boundaries, the cold-rolled Alloy 690, with its heterogeneous microstructure, revealed an abnormal crack growth behavior in mixed mode, that is, in transgranular cracking near a banded region, and in intergranular cracking in a matrix region. From local strain distribution analysis based on local mis-orientation, measured along the crack path using the electron back scattered diffraction method, it was suggested that the abnormal behavior was attributable to a heterogeneity of local strain distribution. In the cold-rolled Alloy 690, the stress corrosion crack grew through a highly strained area formed by a prior cold-rolling process in a direction perpendicular to the maximum principal stress applied during a subsequent stress corrosion cracking test.

Open access

K.S. Kim

Abstract

This paper performed a numerical analysis study of the cutting characteristics when drilling a taper hole whose upper and lower diameters are different, that is, a pilot hole. 3-dimensional drilling analysis was performed using a commercial code, and these results were used to determine analytically and compare the cutting temperature, the phenomenon of cutting chip formation, deformation and pressure, etc., for the tools, chips, and specimens during cutting. Also, cutting force and the required energy were calculated and compared. To verify the results of analysis, a cutting dynamometer was used to analyze 3-axis cutting force. Results of analysis showed that the specimen maintained a temperature of approximately 650°, with rapid cooling after chips were formed from the specimen. The tool reached a maximum of 700°, similarly to the chips. It is expected that these results will be utilized to optimize cutting processes and work conditions when drilling holes.

Open access

Y.C. Kim, S.S. Kim and J.U. Cho

Abstract

It is indispensable to evaluate fracture energy as the bonding strength of adhesive at composite material with aluminum foam. This specimen is designed with tapered double cantilever beam by British standards (BS 7991 and ISO 11343). 4 kinds of specimens due to m values of 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 are manufactured and compared each other with the experimental results. Adhesive fracture energy is calculated from the formulae of British standards. The value of m is the gradient which is denoted as the length and the height of specimen. As m becomes greater at static experimental result, the maximum load becomes higher and the displacement becomes lower. And the critical fracture energy becomes higher. As m becomes less at fatigue experimental result, the displacement becomes higher and the critical fracture energy becomes higher. Fracture behavior of adhesive can be analyzed by this study and these experimental results can be applied into real field effectively. The stability on TDCB structure bonded with aluminum foam composite can be predicted by use of this experimental result. Adhesive fracture energy is calculated from the formulae of British standards. Based on correlations obtained in this study, the fracture behavior of bonded material would possibly be analyzed and aluminum foam material bonded with adhesive would be applied to a composite structure in various fields, thereby analyzing the mechanical and fracture characteristic of the material.

Open access

S.S. Kim, I. Son and K.T. Kim

Abstract

In the present study, electroless Ni–P plating was applied to Bi–Te-based thermoelectric materials as a barrier layer and the effect of the Ni–P plating on the bonding strength of the thermoelectric module was investigated. The bonding strength of the n- and p-type modules increased after being subjected to the electroless Ni–P plating treatment. In the case of the thermoelectric module that was not subjected to electroless Ni–P plating, Sn and Te were interdiffused and formed a brittle Sn–Te-based metallic compound. The shearing mostly occurred on the bonding interface where such an intermetallic compound was formed. On the other hands, it was found from the FE-EPMA analysis of the bonding interface of thermoelectric module subjected to electroless Ni-P plating that the electroless Ni-P plating acted as an anti-diffusion layer, preventing the interdiffusion of Sn and Te. Therefore, by forming such an anti-diffusion layer on the surface of the Bi–Te based thermoelectric element, the bonding strength of the thermoelectric module could be increased.