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D.C. Panigrahi and S.K. Ray

Abstract

The paper addresses an electro-chemical method called wet oxidation potential technique for determining the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. Altogether 78 coal samples collected from thirteen different mining companies spreading over most of the Indian Coalfields have been used for this experimental investigation and 936 experiments have been carried out by varying different experimental conditions to standardize this method for wider application. Thus for a particular sample 12 experiments of wet oxidation potential method were carried out. The results of wet oxidation potential (WOP) method have been correlated with the intrinsic properties of coal by carrying out proximate, ultimate and petrographic analyses of the coal samples. Correlation studies have been carried out with Design Expert 7.0.0 software. Further, artificial neural network (ANN) analysis was performed to ensure best combination of experimental conditions to be used for obtaining optimum results in this method.

All the above mentioned analysis clearly spelt out that the experimental conditions should be 0.2 N KMnO4 solution with 1 N KOH at 45°C to achieve optimum results for finding out the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. The results have been validated with Crossing Point Temperature (CPT) data which is widely used in Indian mining scenario.

Open access

A.K. Ray, B. Vasu and R.S.R. Gorla

Abstract

An incompressible flow of a non-Newtonian Spriggs fluid over an unsteady oscillating plate is investigated using the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). An analytic solution of sine and cosine oscillations of the plate has been obtained. The similarity transformation is introduced to reduce the governing partial differential equations into a single non-linear dimensionless partial differential equation. The effects of the power index of Spriggs fluid and convergence control parameter of HAM for the flow are studied extensively. The range of the convergence control parameter for convergence of series solution for different values of the power index of Spriggs fluid is obtained. The solution for a Spriggs fluid is noticeably different from the solution obtained for a Newtonian fluid. The influences of the shear thinning and shear thickening fluid on the velocity profile are shown graphically. The transient flow effect is higher for non-Newtonian Spriggs fluid than that of a Newtonian fluid. It is also observed that the interval to reach the steady state for the cosine case is less than the sine case. The applications of Stokes’ second problem have been widely found in the variety of fields of biomedical, medical, chemical, micro and nanotechnology.