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Open access

Y. H. Weng, K. J. Tosh, Y. S. Park and M. S. Fullarton

Abstract

Trends in genetic parameters for height growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were examined over three series of family tests throughout New Brunswick. Data were analyzed for each site and across sites within each series. Although individual narrow sense heritability estimates from single-site analyses varied substantially from site to site and showed no consistent age-related pattern, the estimates from across-site analyses showed an increasing trend to age 20. Similar as individual narrow sense heritability, the coefficient of additive genetic variance estimated from single site showed more variation than those estimated from across site analyses. Age-age (type-a) genetic correlations for height were high and could be well predicted by a LAR2 model, where LAR is the natural logarithm of the ratio between two ages at assessment. Type-b genetic correlations were high and of similar magnitude at different ages. Genetic correlations between height at different ages and volume at one-half rotation age were generally high. Taking the volume at one-half rotation age as the target trait, the selection for target trait from early selection at ages 5~7 could be more efficient per year than direct selection.

Open access

Y. H. Weng, Y. S. Park, D. Simpson and T. J. Mullin

Abstract

Genetic gains based on a genetic test using clonal replicates were compared to those based on a test using seedlings at the same gene diversity and testing effort levels using POPSIM™ Simulator. Three testing and deployment strategies targeting for white spruce (P. glauca [Moench] Voss) and black spruce (P. mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) in New Brunswick were compared: seedling test with clonal seed orchard deployed as seedlings (CSO_ST), clonally replicated test with clonal seed orchard deployed as seedlings (CSO_CRT), and clonally replicated test deployed as a clone mix (MVF). The breeding populations (BP) were formed by balanced within-family selection and the production populations (PP) were selected by strong restriction on relatedness, i.e., no parent in common. Compared to the seedling test, the clonally replicated test resulted in faster accumulation of additive effects but quicker loss of additive variance in the BP, and this is particular true in the case of lower narrow-sense heritability or less non-additive genetic variance. The quicker loss in BP additive variance was overcompensated for by its faster accumulation in BP additive effect, resulting in higher gain in the clonally replicated test based PPs. Compared to the CSO_ST, the gain superiority of the CSO_CRT increased with generations, decreasing narrow-sense heritability or reducing the amount of non-additive variance. Implementing MVF was the most effective in terms of gain in most simulated cases and its superiority over the CSO_ST increased with generations, decreasing narrowsense heritability, or increasing non-additive genetic variance. Overall results demonstrated significant advantages of using clonally replicated test both for BP advancement and PP selection in most of the scenarios, suggesting that clonally replicated test should be incorporated into current spruce breeding strategies.

Open access

D.-S. Kim, V. Dhand, K.-Y. Rhee and S.-J. Park

Abstract

In this study, graphene was functionalized via acid oxidation in the presence of a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid. The oxidized graphene was silanized using the coupling agent, 3-aminopropyltriethoxsilane, resulting in functionalized graphene. The oxidized graphene and functionalized graphene were characterized by X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, High-resolution micro Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and atomic force microscopy to confirm the presence of functional moieties on the graphene surface. Thermal studies also demonstrate that the functionalized material is thermally stable up to higher temperatures.

Open access

S. Yang, K.-Pil. Jeong, S.-Y. Park and J.-Gon. Kim

Abstract

Due to the rapid development of the information communication industries, it is expected that next-generation mobile communication devices in the data communication environment will be used at the same time in the L~X band (1–12 GHz). To mutual electric wave interference prevention, research on wave absorbers in L~X band is needed. In this paper, barium ferrite was researched as L~X band wave absorber. The Barium ferrite (BaM, Ba ferrite) substituted by divalent ions (Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+) and tetravalent ion (Ti4+). The substituted Ba ferrite nanoparticles were fabricated by sol-gel process. Lattice parameter, particle size, magnetic properties, and reflection loss were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (X-RD), a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), and a Network Analyzer. Lattice parameter of Ba ferrite was changed 0.0005 to 0.0078 Å in a-b direction, and 0.0187 to 0.0445 Å in c-direction by substituted elements, and it influenced on magnetic anisotropy. In addition, Co-Ti substitution elements influenced that coercive force decrease 5,739 to 2,240 Oe. Moreover, reflection loss frequencies were shifted from 16.3 GHz to 14.4 and 17.4 GHz by substituted elements Co-Ti and Zn-Ti.

Open access

G.-S. Ham, S.-H. Kim, J.-Y. Park and K.-A. Lee

Abstract

This study investigated the high temperature oxidation property of SiC coated layer fabricated by aerosol deposition process. SiC coated layer could be successfully manufactured by using pure SiC powders and aerosol deposition on the Zr based alloy in an optimal process condition. The thickness of manufactured SiC coated layer was measured about 5 μm, and coating layer represented high density structure. SiC coated layer consisted of α-SiC and β-SiC phases, the same as the initial powder. The initial powder was shown to have been crushed to the extent and was deposited in the form of extremely fine particles. To examine the high temperature oxidation properties, oxidized weight gain was obtained for one hour at 1000°C by using TGA. The SiC coated layer showed superior oxidation resistance property than that of Zr alloy (substrate). The high temperature oxidation mechanism of SiC coated layer on Zr alloy was suggested. And then, the application of aerosol deposited SiC coated layer was also discussed.

Open access

H.-E. Lee, Y.Su. Kim, J.K. Park and S.-T. Oh

Abstract

Microstructure evolution of Ni-based oxide dispersion-strengthened alloy powders with milling time is investigated. The elemental powders having a nominal composition of Ni-15Cr-4.5Al-4W-2.5Ti-2Mo-2Ta-0.15Zr-1.1Y2O3 in wt % were ball-milled by using horizontal rotary ball milling with the change of milling velocity. Microstructure observation revealed that large aggregates were formed in the early stages of ball milling, and further milling to 5 h decreased particle size. The average crystalline size, estimated by the peak broadening of XRD, decreased from 28 nm to 15 nm with increasing milling time from 1 h to 5 h. SEM and EPMA analysis showed that the main elements of Ni and Cr were homogeneously distributed inside the powders after ball milling of 5 h.

Open access

J.K. Park, J.H. Lee, S.Y. Shin, J.H. Yi, W.H. Lee, B.J. Park, J.H. Choi, N.Y. Kim and Y.G. Choi

Abstract

Chalcogenide glass in the ternary Ge-Sb-Se system is inherently moldable, thus being considered as a strong candidate material for use in infrared-transmitting lens applications from the viewpoint of thermal and mechanical stability. In an effort to experimentally determine compositional region suitable for the molded lens applications, we evaluate its compositional dependence of hardness. Among the constituent atoms, Ge content turns out to exert a most conspicuous correlation with hardness. This phenomenological behavior is then explained in connection with the structural evolution that Ge brings about.

Open access

K.-A. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, J.-H. Yu, S.-H. Park and M.-C. Kim

Abstract

This study manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloy using one of the powder bed fusion 3D-printing processes, selective laser melting, and investigated the effect of heat treatment (650°C/3hrs) on microstructure and impact toughness of the material. Initial microstructural observation identified prior-β grain along the building direction before and after heat treatment. In addition, the material formed a fully martensite structure before heat treatment, and after heat treatment, α and β phase were formed simultaneously. Charpy impact tests were conducted. The average impact energy measured as 6.0 J before heat treatment, and after heat treatment, the average impact energy increased by approximately 20% to 7.3 J. Fracture surface observation after the impact test showed that both alloys had brittle characteristics on macro levels, but showed ductile fracture characteristics and dimples at micro levels.

Open access

J-H. Kim, H. Lee, E-K. Bae, H. Shin, J-S. Lee, K-S. Kang and S-Y. Park

Abstract

Elicitors trigger defence responses in plant cells through signal transduction pathways, leading to accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and, eventually, pathogen resistance. To understand defence responses of hybrid poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula var. glandulosa), we isolated and characterized upregulated genes in poplar cells by laminarin-induced elicitation using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray approaches. A total of 1,269 clones in the SSH library were sequenced and a cDNA microarray, containing 265 unique subtracted clones, was fabricated. From the microarray results, 37 clones were found to be upregulated by laminarin treatment and their putative functions are discussed. Genes involved in signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, and phytohormone biosynthesis were upregulated. Other genes encoding PR proteins, peptidases, and an ABC transporter, as well as genes involved in lignification and protein synthesis and turnover, were also identified. Our results suggest that well-organized defence responses, from signal transduction to accumulation of PR proteins, are activated in poplar cells by laminarininduced elicitation and could contribute to resistance against pathogens.

Open access

B. Ali, S.H. Choi, S.J. Seo, D.Y. Maeng, C.G. Lee, T.S. Kim and K.T. Park

Abstract

The water atomization of iron powder with a composition of Fe-3Cr-0.5Mo (wt.%) at 1600°C and 150 bar creates an oxide layer, which in this study was reduced using a mixture of methane (CH4) and argon (Ar) gas. The lowest oxygen content was achieved with a 100 cc/min flow rate of CH4, but this also resulted in a co-deposition of carbon due to the cracking of CH4. This carbon can be used directly to create high-quality, sinter hardenable steel, thereby eliminating the need for an additional mixing step prior to sintering. An exponential relationship was found to exist between the CH4 gas flow rate and carbon content of the powder, meaning that its composition can be easily controlled to suit a variety of different applications.