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Open access

Guohao Wu, S.K. Zheng and Xiaobing Yan

Abstract

The electronic and optical properties of Mn–S co-doped anatase TiO2 were calculated using the plane-wave-based ultrasoft pseudopotential density functional method within its generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated results show that the band gap of Mn–S co-doped TiO2 is larger than that of the pure TiO2, and two impurity bands appear in the forbidden band, one of which above the valence band plays a vital role for the improvement of the visible light catalytic activity. The Mn–S co-doped anatase TiO2 could be a potential candidate for a photo catalyst because of its enhanced absorption ability of visible light.

Open access

M. Ivković, H. Wu and S. Kumar

Abstract

A bio-economic model provides a framework for simultaneously considering breeding, management, and production decisions. Such a model should result in optimal breeding (and silvicultural) objectives if main goals of a production system are well defined. Historically estimation of economic weights for breeding-objective traits has been based on partial regressions and profit functions relating only to certain parts of the production system. A bio-economic model includes effects of growth rate, branching, form, and wood quality on all production system components and on overall profitability of an integrated production system. However, long rotation cycles in forestry make determination of relative economic values for the breeding-objective traits particularly difficult. When modelling complex systems under uncertainty about future production goals, there are necessary trade offs between the complexity of the model and the use of simplifying assumptions.

Open access

M. Okayasu, S. Wu, T. Tanimoto and S. Takeuchi

Abstract

Investigation of the tensile and fatigue properties of cast magnesium alloys, created by the heated mold continuous casting process (HMC), was conducted. The mechanical properties of the Mg-HMC alloys were overall higher than those for the Mg alloys, made by the conventional gravity casting process (GC), and especially excellent mechanical properties were obtained for the Mg97Y2Zn1-HMC alloy. This was because of the fine-grained structure composed of the α-Mg phases with the interdendritic LPSO phase. Such mechanical properties were similar levels to those for conventional cast aluminum alloy (Al84.7Si10.5Cu2.5Fe1.3Zn1 alloys: ADC12), made by the GC process. Moreover, the tensile properties (σ UTS and ε f) and fatigue properties of the Mg97Y2Zn1-HMC alloy were about 1.5 times higher than that for the commercial Mg90Al9Zn1-GC alloy (AZ91). The high correlation rate between tensile properties and fatigue strength (endurance limit: σ l) was obtained. With newly proposed etching technique, the residual stress in the Mg97Y2Zn1 alloy could be revealed, and it appeared that the high internal stress was severely accumulated in and around the long-period stacking-order phases (LPSO). This was made during the solidification process due to the different shrinkage rate between α-Mg and LPSO. In this etching technique, micro-cracks were observed on the sample surface, and amount of micro-cracks (density) could be a parameter to determine the severity of the internal stress, i.e., a large amount to micro-cracks is caused by the high internal stress.

Open access

S. Gan, M. Li, F. Li, K. Wu, J. Wu and J. Bai

Summary

Factorial mating crosses of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis (3 x 5), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis (3 x 3) and E. urophylla × E. exserta (3 x 3) were used for genetic analysis of growth traits and susceptibility to bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). Genetic effects including female, male and female × male interaction were examined for height (H) and diameter at breast height (DBH) at age five as well as final bacterial wilt index (BWI) in both nursery inoculation and field assessment by five years of age. Female, male and female x male variances appeared to have a significant role in growth traits H and DBH though their magnitude varied for the factorials studied. For the trait BWI additive (male) and dominant (female x male) effects were both involved in the genetics of bacterial wilt susceptibility, and additive was the major. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability (h2) for H, DBH and BWI ranged from 0.11 ± 0.06 to 0.70 ± 0.09, varying with either trait or factorial. Growth traits (H and DBH) had low and non-significant phenotypic and genetic correlations with BWI in all the three factorials, ranging from -0.10 ± 0.08 to 0.17 ± 0.14 in coefficient of correlation. This indicates that it may be possible to select superior trees with both fast growth and high resistance to bacterial wilt in eucalypt hybrid populations in operational breeding programs.

Open access

X. Wu, Y. Wen, S. Ueno and Y. Tsumura

Abstract

Taxus is an important genus which is well-known for Taxol. Its genetic analyses were lagged behind those of other conifers due to lack of suitable molecular markers. In this paper, we explored polymorphic loci for Taxus mairei and tested their transferability across species based on 150 EST-SSR loci already developed for Taxus cuspidata previously. The results showed that 103 loci were polymorphic, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11 over 16 individuals. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0 to 1 and 0.0625 to 0.891, respectively. The PIC values ranged from 0.11 to 0.754 with an average of 0.453. The average cross-species transferability was 96.07% among 5 species. Most of these loci can be used as universal markers in Taxus genus. The PCA results showed these markers have strong power to identify different species. These markers will be useful for further studies on genetic analysis and conversation of Taxus mairei.

Open access

Dongliang Su, Jian Wu, Zhiming Cui, Victor S. Sheng and Shengrong Gong

This paper proposes a novel invariant local descriptor, a combination of gradient histograms with contrast intensity (CGCI), for image matching and object recognition. Considering the different contributions of sub-regions inside a local interest region to an interest point, we divide the local interest region around the interest point into two main sub-regions: an inner region and a peripheral region. Then we describe the divided regions with gradient histogram information for the inner region and contrast intensity information for the peripheral region respectively. The contrast intensity information is defined as intensity difference between an interest point and other pixels in the local region. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed descriptor performs better than SIFT and its variants PCA-SIFT and SURF with various optical and geometric transformations. It also has better matching efficiency than SIFT and its variants PCA-SIFT and SURF, and has the potential to be used in a variety of realtime applications.

Open access

T. Y. Wu and S. F. Lin

Abstract

Automatic suspected lesion extraction is an important application in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). In this paper, we propose a method to automatically extract the suspected parotid regions for clinical evaluation in head and neck CT images. The suspected lesion tissues in low contrast tissue regions can be localized with feature-based segmentation (FBS) based on local texture features, and can be delineated with accuracy by modified active contour models (ACM). At first, stationary wavelet transform (SWT) is introduced. The derived wavelet coefficients are applied to derive the local features for FBS, and to generate enhanced energy maps for ACM computation. Geometric shape features (GSFs) are proposed to analyze each soft tissue region segmented by FBS; the regions with higher similarity GSFs with the lesions are extracted and the information is also applied as the initial conditions for fine delineation computation. Consequently, the suspected lesions can be automatically localized and accurately delineated for aiding clinical diagnosis. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing with the results outlined by clinical experts. The experiments on 20 pathological CT data sets show that the true-positive (TP) rate on recognizing parotid lesions is about 94%, and the dimension accuracy of delineation results can also approach over 93%.

Open access

Brian. S. Baltunis, W. J. Gapare and H. X. Wu

Abstract

The phenotypic response of genotypes across different environments can be quantified by estimating the genotype by environment interaction (GxE). In a practical sense, GxE means that the relative performance of genotypes does not remain constant under all test conditions. Genetic parameters and genotype by environment interactions for wood density, growth, branching characteristics and stem straightness were investigated in eight radiata pine progeny trials derived from a second generation breeding population in Australia. Five trials were on the mainland, while three trials were in Tasmania. Generally, ĥ2 for density > branch angle > stem straightness > tree diameter > branch size; and significant ĥ2 was observed for all traits and at all trials with only two exceptions. Genetic correlations were estimated among the five traits, and a large negative genetic correlation observed between wood density and tree diameter indicated that a selection strategy should be developed in dealing with this adverse genetic correlation in advanced generations of breeding for radiata pine. Interactions for density, branch angle, and stem straightness were small within the two regions. Overall, branch angle had the least GxE, followed by density and stem straightness. Growth traits (tree diameter and branch size) tended to be the most interactive with substantial GxE present. Genotype by regional interactions (Mainland versus Tasmania) revealed that density and branch angle had the least interactions (ȓB = 0.98 and ȓB = 0.95, respectively). Branch size and tree diameter had the highest interactions among the two regions (ȓB = 0.55 and ȓB = 0.63, respectively). Within Tasmania, only branch size and tree diameter had a sizable interaction within the three sites. In contrast, there was little interaction for tree diameter among the Mainland trials. Branch size in the Mainland trials had a similar size of interaction as in Tasmania. Further research is recommended in identifying the cause of GxE for tree diameter and branch size in radiata pine across the entire radiata pine estate in Australia.

Open access

C.H. Dai, L.N. Gan, W.U. Qin, C. Zi, G.Q. Zhu, S.L. Wu and W.B. Bao

Abstract

An efficient and accurate method to test Escherichia coli (E. coli) adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells will contribute to the study of bacterial pathogenesis and the function of genes that encode receptors related to adhesion. This study used the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. qPCR primers were designed from the PILIN gene of E. coli F18ab, F18ac, and K88ac, and the pig β-ACTIN gene. Total deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from E. coli and intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 cells) were used as templates for qPCR. The 2−ΔΔCt formula was used to calculate the relative number of bacteria in cultures of different areas. We found that the relative numbers of F18ab, F18ac, and K88ac that adhered to IPEC-J2 cells did not differ significantly in 6-, 12-, and 24-well culture plates. This finding indicated that there was no relationship between the relative adhesion number of E. coli and the area of cells, so the method of qPCR could accurately test the relative number of E. coli. This study provided a convenient and reliable testing method for experiments involving E. coli adhesion, and also provided innovative ideas for similar detection methods.

Open access

Jian Wu, Zhiming Cui, Victor S. Sheng, Pengpeng Zhao, Dongliang Su and Shengrong Gong

SIFT is an image local feature description algorithm based on scale-space. Due to its strong matching ability, SIFT has many applications in different fields, such as image retrieval, image stitching, and machine vision. After SIFT was proposed, researchers have never stopped tuning it. The improved algorithms that have drawn a lot of attention are PCA-SIFT, GSIFT, CSIFT, SURF and ASIFT. In this paper, we first systematically analyze SIFT and its variants. Then, we evaluate their performance in different situations: scale change, rotation change, blur change, illumination change, and affine change. The experimental results show that each has its own advantages. SIFT and CSIFT perform the best under scale and rotation change. CSIFT improves SIFT under blur change and affine change, but not illumination change. GSIFT performs the best under blur change and illumination change. ASIFT performs the best under affine change. PCA-SIFT is always the second in different situations. SURF performs the worst in different situations, but runs the fastest.