Device “DRECE - Dual Rolls Equal Channel Extrusion” is used for production of metallic materials with very fine grain size (UFG). During the actual forming process the principle of severe plastic deformation is used. Metallic strip with dimensions 57×2×1000 mm is inserted into the device. During the forming process the main cylinder in synergy with the pressure roller extrude the material through the forming tool without any change of cross section of the strip. In this way a significant refinement of grain is achieved by severe plastic deformation. This method is used for various types of metallic materials, non-ferrous metals and their alloys. The DRECE device is also being verified from the viewpoint of achievement of a UFG structure in a blank of circular cross-section (wire) with diameter of ϕ 8 mm × 1000 mm.
S. Rusz, A. Kłyszewski, M. Salajka, O. Hilser, L. Cizek and M. Klos
M. Musztyfaga-Staszuk, L.A. Dobrzanski, S. Rusz and M. Staszuk
The aim of the paper was to apply the newly developed instruments ‘Corescan’ and ‘Sherescan’ in order to measure the essential parameters of producing solar cells in comparison with the standard techniques. The standard technique named the Transmission Line Method (TLM) is one way to monitor contacting process to measure contact resistance locally between the substrate and metallization. Nowadays, contact resistance is measured over the whole photovoltaic cell using Corescanner instrument. The Sherescan device in comparison with standard devices gives a possibility to measure the sheet resistance of the emitter of silicon wafers and determine of both P/N recognition and metal resistance. The Screen Printing (SP) method is the most widely used contact formation technique for commercial silicon solar cells. The contact resistance of manufactured front metallization depends of both the paste composition and co-firing conditions. Screen printed front side metallization and next to co-fired in the infrared conveyor furnace was carried out at various temperature from 770°C to 920°C. The silver paste used in the present paper is commercial. The investigations were carried out on monocrystalline silicon wafers. The topography of co-fired in the infrared belt furnace front metallization was investigated using the atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). There were researched also cross sections of front contacts using SEM microscope. Front contacts of the solar cells were formed on non-textured silicon surface with coated antireflection layer. On one hand, based on electrical properties investigations using Sherescan instrument it was obtained the knowledge of the emitter sheet resistance across the surface of a wafer, what is essential in optimizing the emitter diffusion process. On the other hand, it was found using Corescan instrument that the higher temperature apparently results in a strongly decreased contact resistance.
L. Cizek, S. Rusz, O. Hilser, R. Śliwa, D. Kuc, T. Tański and M. Tkocz
A growing interest in wrought magnesium alloys has been noticed recently, mainly due to development of various SPD (severe plastic deformation) methods that enable significant refinement of the microstructure and – as a result – improvement of various functional properties of products. However, forming as-cast magnesium alloys with the increased aluminum content at room temperature is almost impossible. Therefore, application of heat treatment before forming or forming at elevated temperature is recommended for these alloys. The paper presents the influence of selected heat treatment conditions on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the as-cast AZ91 alloy. Deformation behaviour of the as-cast AZ61 alloy at elevated temperatures was analysed as well. The microstructure analysis was performed by means of both light microscopy and SEM. The latter one was used also for fracture analysis. Moreover, the effect of chemical composition modification by lithium addition on the microstructure of the AZ31-based alloy is presented. The test results can be helpful in preparation of the magnesium-aluminum alloys for further processing by means of SPD methods.
S. Rusz, L. Cizek, M. Salajka, S. Tylsar, J. Kedron, V. Michenka, T. Donic, E. Hadasik and M. Klos
One of the ways to the more effective use of metallic materials is their processing by forming. At present in this the area the use of the process of severe plastic deformation (SPD process), leading to a refinement of the structure (materials with UFG structure) and thus to achievement of higher level of their utility value, is expanding. AlMn1Cu alloy is commercially produced aluminum alloy by the company Al Invest Bridlicna (the cast strip with a mild reduction by rolling up to 10% to the thickness of 10 and 15 mm, which has its uses especially in engineering. AZ31 alloy is commercially produced aluminum alloy after casting and extrusion at 400°C on final rod with 20 mm diameter. For experimental purposes from the belts of alloys the test samples of the underlying dimensions of 10x10 mm length 40 mm (geometry with channel deflection 20°) and 15x15 mm length 60 mm (geometry with helix matrix) in the direction of rolling were made. All three instruments are made of high tool steel - HOTVAR. For compare the influence of geometry ECAP tool on structure refining was used AlMn1Cu and AZ31 alloys were used three specially made tools ECAP, differing mainly in the construction design.
I. Schindler, E. Hadasik, J. Kopeček, P. Kawulok, R. Fabík, P. Opěla, S. Rusz, R. Kawulok and M. Jabłońska
Use of the protective steel capsules enabled to manage the laboratory hot flat rolling of the extremely brittle as-cast aluminide Fe-40at.%Al-Zr-B with the total height reduction of almost 70 %. The hot rolling parameters were optimized to obtain the best combination of deformation temperature (from 1160°C up to 1240°C) and rolling speed (from 0.14 m·s−1 to 0.53 m·s−1). The resistance against cracking and refinement of the highly heterogeneous cast microstructure were the main criteria. Both experiments and mathematical simulations based on FEM demonstrated that it is not possible to exploit enhanced plasticity of the investigated alloy at low strain rates in the hot rolling process. The heat flux from the sample to the working rolls is so intensive at low rolling speed that even the protective capsule does not prevent massive appearance of the surface transverse cracking. The homogeneity and size of product’s grain was influenced significantly by temperature of deformation, whereas the effect of rolling speed was relatively negligible. The optimal forming parameters were found as rolling temperature 1200°C and the rolling speed 0.35 m·s−1. The effective technology of the iron aluminide Fe-40at.% Al-Zr-B preparation by simple processes of melting, casting and hot rolling was thus established and optimized.