Indirect Evidences of Wildlife Activities in Shoals of Western Ghats, a Biodiversity Hotspots
The presence of wildlife fauna and its activities were ascertained with the density of the scat, dung and other markings or droppings of the wildlife abode therein. Attempt was made to find out spatial differences in the activities of the wildlife populations and to comment on the abundance of different preys and predators within shola forests of Western Ghat hill forests, a Biodiversity hotspot in India. An indirect sampling method, Transect Count Method, was employed to count dung/pellet group/scat and other markings in that area. Pachyderms were found to be mostly dominant in Varagaliar and Punnumala shola patches while scats of all the three important predators, viz., tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), Indian wild dog (Cuon alpinus) and leopard (Panthera pardus) were encountered only in Varagaliar shola. Greater abundance was recorded from Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary than Silent Valley National Park may be because of the restriction of animal movements in the former due to topographical barriers and its existence as isolated shola patches that led to a greater concentration of wild fauna in a relatively segregated forest cover.
An axi-symmetric laminar boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible fluid and heat transfer towards a stretching cylinder is presented. Velocity slip is considered instead of the no-slip condition at the boundary. Similarity transformations are used to convert the partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and heat equations into non-linear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained by the shooting method. It is found that the velocity decreases with increasing the slip parameter. The skin friction as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface is larger for a cylinder compared to those for a flat plate.
An analysis of heat transfer for boundary layer forced convective flow past a moving flat surface parallel to a moving stream is presented. The power-law surface temperature at the boundary is prescribed. The surface temperature varying directly (or inversely) with power-law exponent is considered. The similarity solutions for the problem are obtained and the reduced ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. To support the validity of the numerical results, a comparison is made with known results from the open literature for some particular cases of the present study. When the surface and the fluid move in the opposite directions, dual solutions exist.