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Syed S. Haque


OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever an important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and Southeast Asia, where enteric fever is associated with poor sanitation and unsafe food and water. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) plays an important role for the survival of the host in experimental salmonellosis. Nitric oxide (NO) is the one of the product of macrophages activated by cytokines, microbial compounds or both, is derived from the amino acid L-arginine by the enzymatic activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS2) which acts as antimicrobial molecule. AIM: The aim was to examine the induction of DTH reaction in the animals treated with L-Arginine, ciprofloxacin and their combination followed by immunization with S. typhimurium cell lysate as assessed by the footpad swelling test.

RESULTS: The results of the present study showed that the induction of DTH reaction in the animals treated with L-Arginine, ciprofloxacin and their combination followed by immunization with S. typhimurium cell lysate using an antigen revealed that the treatment with combination increased foot pad swelling significantly as compared to saline treated control animals at 48 hour which was followed by a decrease of the swelling at 72 hour.

CONCLUSIONS: Animal treated with L-arginine, ciprofloxacin and their combination showed increased cell mediated immune responses as evident by DTH response whereas groups (B+S) shows decreases CMI responses

Open access

Nadeem Siddiqui, Arpana Rana, Suroor Khan, S. Haque, M. Arshad, Sharique Ahmed and Waquar Ahsan

Synthesis and preliminary screening of benzothiazol-2-yl thiadiazole derivatives for anticonvulsant activity

Various N-(5-chloro-6-substituted-benzothiazol-2-yl)-N'-(substituted phenyl)-[1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines (5a-t) were designed and synthesized starting from substituted acetophenones. Structures of all the compounds were confirmed on the basis of spectral and elemental analyses. All the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their anticonvulsant activity and were compared with the standard drug phenytoin sodium. Interestingly, all the compounds showed protections against seizures in the range 50-100% indicative of the promising nature of the compounds against seizure spread. Compounds 5b and 5c showed complete protection against MES induced seizures.

Open access

M. Khalid Hossain, M. F. Pervez, M. Jalal Uddin, S. Tayyaba, M. N. H. Mia, M. S. Bashar, M. K. H. Jewel, M. A. S. Haque, M. A. Hakim and Mubarak A. Khan


Porous photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) can adsorb specific type of natural or organic dyes. Adsorption of the dye results in a change of the structural, morphological and optical characteristics of the photoanode. In this work, we present a comparative study on the adsorption effect of natural dye (Curcuma Longa sp.) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) photoanode on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. A number of investigations including XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, EDS, and SEM were carried out to observe the variations due to adsorbed dye on TiO2 surface. XRD characterization revealed the effect of dye adsorption on specific surface area (SSA), crystallite size, and morphological index (MI). In this case, increasing SSA with decreasing particle size was found for both dye adsorbed and dye free DSSC photoanode samples. Also, the MI and SSA were found to be directly and inversely proportional to the crystallite size respectively. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy showed that dye adsorption changes the light absorption, transmittance, and optical bandgap of the photoanode. Average atomic mass percentage of titanium (Ti) and oxygen (O) obtained from EDS analysis proved the presence of TiO2 in the mesoporous photoanode. In SEM images, significant morphological changes of mesoporous TiO2 surface appeared because of dye adsorption.