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S. Gil, M. Rozpondek and W. Bialik

Abstract

Investigations on operational parameters of afterburning chambers included in metallurgical thermal equipment have been presented. The effects of temperature and modernization within the firing system on concentrations of nitrogen oxides and carbon oxide have been analysed. To ensure effective afterburning of gases generated during technological processes and minimisation of CO levels, the temperature in the afterburning chamber should be elevated to approximately 1053-1973 K with evenly distributed temperature within the flame. This may lead to slightly higher (by about 20 mg/m3 n ) NOx concentrations.

Open access

S. Gil, J. Góral, P. Horňak, J. Ochman and T. Wiśniewski

Abstract

Recuperators and regenerators are important devices for heat recovery systems in technological lines of industrial processes and should have high air preheating temperature, low flow resistance and a long service life. The use of heat recovery systems is particularly important in high-temperature industrial processes (especially in metallurgy) where large amounts of thermal energy are lost to the environment. The article presents the process design for a high efficiency recuperator intended to work at high operating parameters: air pressure up to 1.2 MPa and temperature of heating up to 900°C. The results of thermal and gas-dynamic calculations were based on an algorithm developed for determination of the recuperation process parameters. The proposed technical solution of the recuperator and determined recuperation parameters ensure its operation under maximum temperature conditions.

Open access

S. Gil, W. Bialik, M. Saternus and A. Fornalczyk

Every new car should be equipped with the catalyst, which limits the amount of harmful chemical compounds such as NOx, CH and CO emitted to the air. Auto catalyst consists of the ceramic or metallic carrier, on which is the layer with Platinum Group Metals playing catalytic role. There are many methods using for recovery those valuable metals from spent auto catalyst, however evry of those methods have some limitations. Proces described in the article is the modified method of metal collector, which used magnetohydrodynamic pump. Rotary electromagnetic field generates in the liquid metal rotary current, which as a consequence washing out the PGM metals from the ceramic carriers. Considering the possibilities of commercialization of the described method, the energy balance was made. From that balance the energetic efficiency of the unit was determined and the analysis of the temperature distribution was shown thermographycally.

Open access

B. Machulec, S. Gil and W. Bialik

Abstract

In order to determine reasons of unsatisfactory production output regarding one of the 12 MVA furnaces, a comparative analysis with a furnace of higher power that showed a markedly better production output was performed. For comparison of ferrosilicon furnaces with different geometrical parameters and transformer powers, the theory of physical similarity was applied. Geometrical, electrical and thermal parameters of the reaction zones are included in the comparative analysis. For furnaces with different geometrical parameters, it is important to ensure the same temperature conditions of the reaction zones. Due to diverse mechanisms of heat generation, different criteria for determination of thermal and electrical similarity for the upper and lower reaction zones were assumed contrary to other publications. The parameter c 3 (Westly) was assumed the similarity criterion for the upper furnace zones where heat is generated as a result of resistive heating while the parameter J 1 (Jaccard) was assumed the similarity criterion for the lower furnace zones where heat is generated due to arc radiation.

Open access

S. Mutke, J. Gordo and Luis Gil

Abstract

In spite of the use of the edible kernels of Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) gathered from Mediterranean pine forests, the species remains a genuine forest tree that has never been domesticated as an orchard crop. In the last decades, some efforts have been made to select valuable genotypes for exploring the possibilities of Stone pine as an orchard crop. The present paper characterizes the cone yield of a grafted clone bank in order to elucidate the relevance of genetic and environment factors for seed-yield quantity and quality and for sequential transition rates of the development from pollinated conelets to ripe cones. Individual tree size and cone yield were separated in their genetic and environmental components, in order to estimate phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations. A statistical model for logtransformed individual cone yield was adjusted, ranking the tested genotypes by their estimated clonal value after adjustment for tree size covariables. The degree of genetic determination for adjusted cone yield was estimated in 15%, the expected genetic gain by selection of the top 10% of tested genotypes would be 12%. Genetic correlation between genetic values for cone yield and cone and seed size were weak but significantly positive (r = 0.27 and 0.17), hence the lack of trade-offs between crop quantity and quality will allow a combined selection.

Open access

H.-Y. Gil, E. H. Lee, I.-Y. Choi, M. S. Roh and C. S. Chang

Abstract

Pinus parviflora Siebold et Zucc. on Ulleung Island, Korea, has been proposed to be more closely related to P. armandii Franch. because both have long leaves and seeds that are either wingless or have very short wings. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers using nine primers and sequence analysis of the trnG gene and the matK gene and morphological characteristics of seeds and cones were used to assess the genetic relatedness of this taxon on Ulleung Island with P. armandii in China and P. parviflora in Japan. This current study showed that Pinus armandii from China, P. parviflora from Japan, and P. parviflora populations of Ulleung Island formed distinct groups that were separated from each other. P. parviflora from Ulleung Island grouped with P. parviflora from Japan, rather than P. armandii from China based on the RAPD dendrogram and SNPs in matK. It is believed that P. parviflora on Ulleung Island is genetically well differentiated, indicating limited gene flow from Japan, although cones and seeds of P. parviflora on Ulleung Island are more similar to var. parviflora in southern Japan than P. armandii in central China. It seems that the entities that comprise P. parviflora exhibit widely overlapping ranges in morphological attributes except leaf length.

Open access

J.J. Sobczak, A. Karwiński, W. Leśniewski, P. Wieliczko, A. Gil, S. Pysz, P. Kowalski and N. Sobczak

Abstract

This study shown possibilities of Rapid Prototyping techniques (RP) and metal casting simulation software (MCSS), including non inertial reference systems. RP and MCSS have been used in order to design and produce essential elements for artificial heart. Additionally it has been shown possibilities of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technique and DodJet technology using prototyped elements of rotodynamic pump. MAGMASOFT® software allowed to verify the cast kit heart valves model. Optical scanner Atos III enabled size verification of experimental elements supplied by rapid prototyping together with metal casting elements. Due to the selection of ceramic materials and assessment of molten metal – ceramic reactivity at high temperatures together with pattern materials selection model it was possible to design, manufacture a ceramic mould for titanium based alloys. The casting structure modification has been carried out by means of high isostatic pressure technique (HIP). The quality assessment of the casting materials has been performed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), ARL 4460 Optical Emission Spectrometer, metallographic techniques and X-ray computed tomography.