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Open access

M. Węglowski and S. Dymek

Microstructural Modification of Cast Aluminium Alloy AlSi9Mg via Friction Modified Processing

Friction Modified Processing (FMP) is a new solid state processing technique which can be used for microstructural modification in metallic materials. The FMP process has been applied to cast aluminium alloy AlSi9Mg plates to modify the microstructure. The FMP process refinement and dispersed the coarse acicular Si particles creating a uniform distribution of Si particles in the aluminium matrix. Furthermore, the porosity of as cast AlSi9Mg alloy was nearly eliminated by FMP.

The current study also aims to develop a model describing the quantitative relationships between volume and mass of modified material and processing speeds over a wide experimental range. An exponential formula has been found to describe the relationship between penetration depth, volume and mass of modified material and rotational speed. The evaluation on travelling speed affecting penetration depth, volume and mass of modified material can be approximately made through linearly functions.

Open access

S. Błacha, M.S. Węglowski, S. Dymek and M. Kopyściański

Abstract

The paper shows the results of metallographic examination and mechanical properties of electron beam welded joints of quenched and tempered S960QL and Weldox 1300 steel grades. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of producing good quality electron beam welded joints without filler material.

Metallographic examination revealed that the concentrated electron beam significantly affects the changes of microstructure in the weld and the adjacent heat affected zone (HAZ) in both steel grades. The microstructure of the welded joints is not homogeneous. The four zones, depending on the distance from the weld face, can be distinguished. Basically, the microstructure of the weld consists of a mixture of martensite and bainite. However, the microstructure of HAZ depends on the distance from the fusion line. It is composed of martensite near the fusion line and a mixture of bainite and ferrite in the vicinity of the base material.

Significant differences in mechanical properties of the welded joints were observed. For a butt welded joint of the S960QL steel grade the strength is at the level of the strength of the base material (Rm = 1074 MPa). During the bending test the required angle of 180° was achieved. The impact strength at −40°C was 71,7 J/cm2. In the case of the Weldox 1300 steel grade butt welded joints exhibit high mechanical properties (Rm = 1470 MPa), however, the plastic properties are on the lower level than for the base material.

Open access

S. Błacha, M. St. Węglowski, S. Dymek and M. Kopuściański

Abstract

In the paper the results of metallographic examination and mechanical properties of electron beam welded joint of quenched and tempered steel grade S690QL are presented. Metallographic examination revealed that the concentrated electron beam significantly affect the changes of microstructure in the steel. Parent material as a delivered condition (quenched and tempered) had a bainitic-martensitic microstructure at hardness about 290 HV0.5. After welding, the microstructure of heat affected zone is composed mainly of martensite (in the vicinity of the fusion line) of hardness 420 HV0.5. It should be noted, however, that the microstructure of steel in the heat affected zone varies with the distance from the fusion line. The observed microstructural changes were in accordance with the CCT-S transformation diagram for the examined steel.

Open access

M.S. Węglowski, S. Dymek and C.B. Hamilton

Abstract

Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is a novel solid state processing technique which can be used for microstructural modification of surface layers in metallic materials. This paper analyzes the effects of FSP process parameters on spindle torque acting on the tool and on the tool temperature. It has been shown that an increase in the rotational speed brings about a decrease in the torque and an increase of temperature. For temperature estimation in the stir zone a numerical model was applied, while for predicting a relationship between the spindle torque acting on the tool, rotational and travelling speeds and the down force, the artificial neural networks approach was employed. Light and electron (scanning and transmission) microscopy investigation showed that the FSP process reduces porosity and produces a more uniform distribution of second-phase particles.

Open access

I. Kalemba, M. Kopyściański, C. Hamilton and S. Dymek

Abstract

The long term natural aging behavior of friction stir welded aluminum 7136-T76 and 7042 T6 extrusions was investigated. The microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties in the as-welded and six years naturally aged conditions were studied and correlated to a coupled thermal/material flow model of the joining process. Hardness profiles for the 7136 alloy taken along the mid-plane thickness of the workpiece displayed the characteristic W-shape. With natural aging, hardness recovery occurred on both sides of the weld, but the position of the hardness minima, particularly on the advancing side, shifted away from the weld centerline. The hardness profile for the 7042 alloy displayed U-shape in the as-welded condition and W-shape after natural aging. The hardness behavior upon natural aging correlated to the temperature profile developed during welding and the degree to which phase dissolution occurred in the regions adjacent to the stir zone.