The cigarette ingredients cocoa powder, glycerol, and saccharose were investigated regarding their potential effect on the resulting mainstream smoke, i.e., smoke chemistry (Hoffmann analytes), mammalian cell cytotoxicity (Neutral Red Uptake assay), and bacterial mutagenicity (Ames assay). Each ingredient was added at three concentrations to the tobacco of a 6 mg and 10 mg ‘tar’ yield experimental American blend filter cigarette (obtained under ISO/FTC smoking regime). The lowest application concentration was equivalent to the normal approximate use level of the ingredients; the highest application level was up to 5-fold higher. The resulting data were compared with the respective control cigarettes without addition of the ingredients. The addition of cocoa powder did not lead to any consistent effects on the measured mainstream smoke analytes. Neither the in vitro cytotoxicity nor the in vitro mutagenicity was affected by cocoa addition. The addition of glycerol resulted in a decrease in the delivery of several smoke constituents (generally around 20%), e.g. aldehydes, phenolics, and N-nitrosamines. Water in the particulate phase (TPM) was distinctly increased (up to +150%). The cytotoxicity of the TPM was decreased (approx. !15%). Mutagenicity was not affected. Saccharose addition consistently increased formaldehyde delivery in smoke by up to 40% and decreased tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines by up to approximately 20%. The increase in formaldehyde is discussed in the context of the human smoker. The cytotoxicity was not affected by the addition of saccharose, while the mutagenicity of the TPM was decreased in tester strain TA98 with metabolic activation (!15%). The results are in agreement with currently available literature. Some investigations summarized in this publication are novel and have not yet been reported in the literature. Based on the total evidence, it can be concluded that the three ingredients added at their current use levels do not increase the inherent toxicity of the cigarette smoke.
A new reference cigarette, the 3R4F, has been developed to replace the depleting supply of the 2R4F cigarette. The present study was designed to compare mainstream smoke chemistry and toxicity of the two reference cigarettes under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) machine smoking conditions, and to further compare mainstream smoke chemistry and toxicological activity of the 3R4F cigarette by two different smoking regimens, i.e., the machine smoking conditions specified by ISO and the Health Canada intensive (HCI) smoking conditions.
The in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity was determined in the neutral red uptake assay, the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and the mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase assay. Additionally, a 90-day nose-only inhalation study in rats was conducted to assess the in vivo toxicity. The comparison of smoke chemistry between the two reference cigarettes found practically the same yields of total particulate matter (TPM), ‘tar’, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and most other smoke constituents. For both cigarettes, the in vitro cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and in vivo toxicity showed the expected smoke-related effects compared to controls without smoke exposure. There were no meaningful differences between the 2R4F and 3R4F regarding these toxicological endpoints. The assessments for the 3R4F cigarette by smoking regimen found as a trivial effect, due to the higher amount of smoke generated per cigarette under HCI conditions, an increased yield of toxicant and higher toxicological activity per cigarette. However, per mg TPM, ‘tar’, or nicotine, the amounts of toxicants and the in vitro toxicity were generally lower under HCI conditions, but the in vivo activity was not different between the two machine smoking conditions. Overall, as the main result, the present study suggests equivalent smoke chemistry and in vitro and in vivo toxicity for the 2R4F and 3R4F reference cigarettes.