Cross-link method has been used to load nano CeO2, ZnO, and TiO2 on the surface of cotton fabric. Three types of nanocomposite fabrics are prepared (cotton/CeO2, cotton/CeO2/ZnO, and cotton/CeO2/TiO2) and their properties were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) images of the samples showed good distribution of nanomaterial, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) samples proved the usage of amount of nanomaterials. On the other hand, elemental mapping was used to study the distribution of each nanomaterial separately. Antibacterial property of the samples showed excellent results against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also ultraviolet (UV)-blocking of treated samples showed that all samples have very low transmission when exposed to UV irradiation.
The study of vegetative propagation of the Vitex agnus-castus L., was conducted in the Agriculture College - Salahaddin University field under controlled condition (plastic greenhouse) in two periods (summer time: from 26.5.2008 to 2.9.2008 and winter time: from 15.1.2009 to 28.4.2009). The object of the studies were different soil substrates (sand and river (sharp) sand - sand and peat moss - sand and river (sharp) sand and peat moss). We used two types of stem cuttings (semi-hardwood cuttings „m“ - softwood cuttings „a“). The statistical analysis is based on the experimental project Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. The results were compared with results from Duncan test at 0.05 level. The study showed that planting in the second period (T2) causes increase in number of branches and leaves, whereas planting in the first period (T1) causes increase in number of roots and root length, the increase in the weight of biomass and dry mass has been observed in the second period of planting (T2). Planting in the sand substrate using semi-hardwood cuttings (m) causes increase in number of branches, leaves, fresh weight, number of roots and root length
We report a new direct fabrication of the ZnO nanorods (NR) by hydrothermal method, in which the preparation of seed layer is eliminated. We show that the tuning of initial temperature rate during the hydrothermal process plays a key role in the structural modification of the ZnO NR. A highly oriented ZnO NR is successfully fabricated by using a low rate of initial temperature. The increase of optical absorption and electron transport was obtained by reducing the diameter and increasing distribution of the ZnO NR on the substrate. Interestingly, an additional absorption from the defects is obtained in the system, which plays an important role in expanding the optical absorption. Our system will provide a favourable characteristic for developing the high-performance optoelectronic devices with high optical absorption and high electron transport.
An eternal m-secure set of a graph G = (V,E) is a set S0 ⊆ V that can defend against any sequence of single-vertex attacks by means of multiple guard shifts along the edges of G. The eternal m-security number σm(G) is the minimum cardinality of an eternal m-secure set in G. The eternal m-security bondage number bσm (G) of a graph G is the minimum cardinality of a set of edges of G whose removal from G increases the eternal m-security number of G. In this paper, we study properties of the eternal m-security bondage number. In particular, we present some upper bounds on the eternal m-security bondage number in terms of eternal m-security number and edge connectivity number, and we show that the eternal m-security bondage number of trees is at most 2 and we classify all trees attaining this bound.