Rapid Detection of Fetal Aneuploidies by Quantitative Fluorescent-Polymerase Chain Reaction for Prenatal Diagnosis in the Turkish Population
Prenatal diagnosis is testing for diseases or conditions in a fetus or embryo before it is born. It employs a variety of techniques to determine the health and condition of an unborn fetus. The main goal of this process is to perform prenatal diagnosis at the earliest possible stage of gestation. In this regard, quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR), a novel technique that is fast and reliable, was employed to detect aneuploidies (13, 18, 21, X and Y) without the need of the time-consuming culturing process. The QF-PCR method can detect five different chromosome aneuploidies with 98.6% accuracy. In this study, 1874 amniotic fluid samples of pregnant subjects, who were referred to the Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Adana, Turkey (molecular biology section), were analyzed with the QF-PCR technique by employing 27 short tandem repeat (STR) markers to detect chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y aneuploidies. We detected 31 subjects (1.7%) with aneuploidies or euploidies out of the 1874 subjects. The average age of the pregnant subjects was 32 (range: 14-49). Abnormal karyotypes detected were as follows: 47, XX,+21 (19.4%, 6/31), 47, XY,+21 (48.4%, 15/31), 48, XXX,+21 (3.2%, 1/31), 69, XXX (3.2%, 1/31), 47, XY,+13 (3.2%, 1/31), 47, XXY (9.6%, 3/31), 47, XXX (9.6%, 3/31) and 45, X (3.2%, 1/31). Moreover, some STR markers were found to be more specific to the Turkish population. In conclusion, QF-PCR can be regarded as an alternative method of conventional cytogenetic analysis as it is a rapid and reliable method; however, in most cases it is required to be supported or validated with conventional cytogenetic karyotyping and some STR markers employed for QF-PCR can be more informative for a given population.
Pentasomy X is an extremely rare sex chromosome abnormality, a condition that only affects females, in which three more X chromosomes are added to the normally present two chromosomes in females. We investigated the novel clinical findings in a 1-year-old female baby with pentasomy X, and determined the parental origins of the X chromosomes. Our case had thenar atrophy, postnatal growth deficiency, developmental delay, mongoloid slant, microcephaly, ear anomalies, micrognathia and congenital heart disease. A conventional cytogenetic technique was applied for the diagnosis of the polysomy X, and quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) using 11 inherited short tandem repeat (STR) alleles specific to the chromosome X for the determination of parental origin of X chromosomes. A cytogenetic evaluation revealed that the karyotype of the infant was 49,XXXXX. Comparison of the infant’s features with previously reported cases indicated a clinically recognizable specific pattern of malformations referred to as the pentasomy X syndrome. However, to the best of our know-ledge, this is the first report of thenar atrophy in a patient with 49,XXXXX. The molecular analysis suggested that four X chromosomes of the infant originated from the mother as a result of the non disjunction events in meiosis I and meiosis II. We here state that the clinical manifestations seen in our case were consistent with those described previously in patients with pentasomy X. The degree of early hypotonia constitutes an important early prognostic feature in this syndrome. The pathogenesis of pentasomy X is not clear at present, but it is thought to be caused by successive maternal non disjunctions.