The color of Oriental tobaccos was organoleptically assayed, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of polyphenols was performed. The major tobacco polyphenols (chlorogenic acid, its isomers, and rutin), as well as scopoletin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside were quantified. HPLC polyphenol profiles were processed by pattern recognition method (PRM), and the values of indexes of similarity (Is,%) between the cultivars studied were determined. It was shown that data from organoleptic color assessment and from PRM based on HPLC profiles of polyphenols of the cultivars studied are largely compatible. Hence, PRM can be suggested as an additional tool for objective color evaluation and classification of Oriental tobacco.
Leaf samples of different flue-cured Virginia tobacco varieties were analyzed and compared to a standard, the typical American Virginia cultivar K 326. Plants were grown in the Plovdiv region, Bulgaria, under conditions appropriate for Virginia varieties. The tobaccos were characterized by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of polyphenols and capillary gas chromatography (CGC) of the neutral volatiles of essential oils, as well as by a sensory evaluation of color and aroma. All cultivars examined contained twelve polyphenol components in their HPLC profiles and differed only in quantitative aspects. Both qualitative and quantitative variations between the CGC profiles of essential oils of the cultivars were observed. The chromatographic profiles of polyphenols and essential oils were compared by the pattern recognition method (PRM) and used for calculating the similarity indexes (Is,%) of the samples to the standard Virginia variety K 326. The chemometric data obtained are completely compatible with sensory evaluation of color and aroma. Based on the results obtained the tobaccos may be distinguished as: typical full-flavored Virginia - aromatic (Virginia 330); typical full-flavored Virginia - less aromatic (Virginia 0454); non-typical (filler type) Virginia (Virginia 42). The possibilities of the PRM for objective evaluation of color and aroma of Virginia tobaccos were demonstrated.
The influence of cigarette design on the content of phenols in mainstream tobacco smoke was studied. The most abundant phenols - catechol, hydroquinone, phenol, o-, m-, and p-cresol, and resorcinol - were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Hydroquinone and catechol made the most significant contribution to the total content of phenols with maximum values of 135.0 µg/cig and 95.7 µg/cig, respectively. The highest total content of phenols (330.9 µg/cig) was measured in the smoke of a Virginia tobacco cigarette. The total content of phenols (µg/cig) in cigarette mainstream smoke decreased linearly with increased filter ventilation, R2 = 0.9536. The results obtained indicate that filtration and ventilation can strongly influence the mainstream tobacco smoke content of phenol and its less polar derivatives, o-, m-, and p-cresol, which were reduced by up to 85%. Hydroquinone and catechol are less affected and only cigarettes with the special “recessed charcoal filter system” and cigarettes with filter ventilation over 50% showed significant reductions. On a per mg ‘tar’ basis the largest contributor to phenols in cigarette mainstream smoke was the selection of the tobacco type. The use of any standard commercial filter on an unfiltered cigarette can substantially reduce the yield of phenols in cigarette mainstream smoke. The use of special filters (e.g., the “recessed charcoal filter system”) or high levels of cigarette ventilation does not reduce the amount of phenols in tobacco smoke considerably when normalized on a per mg ‘tar’ basis.
Levels of valeric acids (isovaleric and 3-methylvaleric) in leaves and smoke of different tobacco types were quantified by capillary gas chromatography (GC) using flame ionization detector (FID). The aroma characteristics of the smoke were scored by sensory evaluation. It was found that leaves of Oriental and burley tobaccos contain higher amounts of both valeric acid derivatives than Virginia tobaccos containing isovaleric acid but no 3-methylvaleric acid. Strong correlation between the aroma and pleasantness scores of smoke and the content of valeric acids in the leaves of Oriental tobaccos was observed, while it was not the case for leaves of Virginia and burley tobaccos. In all tobacco types no correlation between smoking characteristics and the content of valeric acids in the smoke was established. Regression models involving leaf isovaleric acid were developed that can be used to evaluate aroma and pleasantness of smoke in Oriental tobaccos. The data obtained allow the following conclusions to be drawn: a) 3-methylvaleric acid may be a chemical marker to distinguish Virginia tobaccos from Oriental and burley tobaccos; b) isovaleric acid content in leaves of Oriental tobaccos may be used for objective aroma evaluation that can be exploited for breeding and market purposes.
Pattern recognition method (PRM) was applied to gas chromatographic (GC) data for a fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) composition of commercial and laboratory synthesized biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils including sunflower, rapeseed, corn and palm oils. Two GC quantitative methods to calculate individual fames were compared: Area % and internal standard. The both methods were applied for analysis of two certified reference materials. The statistical processing of the obtained results demonstrates the accuracy and precision of the two methods and allows them to be compared. For further chemometric investigations of biodiesel fuels by their FAME-profiles any of those methods can be used. PRM results of FAME profiles of samples from different vegetable oils show a successful recognition of biodiesels according to the feedstock. The information obtained can be used for selection of feedstock to produce biodiesels with certain properties, for assessing their interchangeability, for fuel spillage and remedial actions in the environment.