J Yu, LT Taylor, S Aref, JA Bodnar and MF Borgerding
Cigarette testing regulations based on more intensive puffing conditions than standard Federal Trade Commission/International Organisation for Standardization (FTC/ISO) conditions, together with intentional filter vent-blocking of cigarettes during testing, are currently required in some countries. Recently, an initial recommendation under the auspices of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, has called for international machine-testing of cigarettes with a 55 cc/30 s/2 s puffing regimen after 100% filter vent-blocking. While much is currently known regarding changes in smoke yields with different machine smoking parameters, a more limited understanding of potential changes in smoke composition exists. In the present work, the influence of smoking conditions on nicotine fate in a burning cigarette was studied by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED) using core-injected nicotine-d4. Tobacco rods were injected via a syringe to a fixed length with a constant volume of a methanol solution of known concentration of deuterated nicotine. Four different puffing conditions and two different vent-blocking conditions were studied. GC with mass spectrometric detection was used to identify the deuterium-labeled compounds that gave an enhanced deuterium AED-response. A comparison of the distribution of compounds containing deuterium in the mainstream smoke, sidestream smoke, and cigarette remains (butt and ash) of a full flavor cigarette brand under the four smoking conditions studied indicated that a greater percentage of labeled nicotine remained intact during the smoking process as the intensity of the puffing regimen increased. As smoking regimen intensity increased, the amounts of nicotine pyrolysis and oxidation products detected in sidestream smoke decreased, while marginal increases in these compounds were observed in mainstream smoke and in the cigarette butt. The sidestream/mainstream nicotine ratio decreased significantly as smoking intensity increased. Small amounts of intact nicotine were observed in the sidestream vapor phase; however, nicotine was not observed in mainstream vapor phase samples.
M. Nikfarjam, J. Koto, O.B. Yaakob, M.S. Seif and A. Aref
Evaluation of impact loads when a ship hull contacts the wave surface is one of the main issues for researchers who are going to design the structure of marine vehicles. In this paper, the results of experimental tests and numerical modeling of the distribution of pressure on different wedge-shaped models are reported and the effect of related parameters such as the deadrise angles, the weight and drop heights, is assessed. The output of analyses and the results can give appropriate approximations of the maximum impact pressures for the geometries that are similar to marine vehicle’s hull sections to estimate the hydrodynamic impact loads in different sea-states. In addition, other effective parameters such as the impact speed, acceleration and water entry process can be used for evaluating the performance of such crafts.
A Nariman, MR Sobhan, M Savaei, E Aref-Eshghi, R Nourinejad, M Manoochehri, S Ghahremani, F Daliri and K Daliri
Genetic service for couples plays an increasingly important role in diagnosis and risk management. This study investigated the status of consanguinity and the medical genetic history (effectiveness and coverage of medical genetic services) in couples residing in a city in southern Iran. We questioned couples who were referred to Behbahan Marital Counseling Center, Behbahan, Iran, during the period from January to November 2014, to obtain information on consanguinity, disease history, and previous referral to a medical genetics center. For the collected data was obtained descriptive statistics with STATA 11.0 software. A total of 500 couples were questioned. Mean age was 24.8 ± 5.2 years. Almost one quarter (23.4%) of the couples were consanguineous. Consanguinity was almost twice as common in rural areas as in urban areas (33.9 vs. 19.2%, p = 0.001). Only a few couples (~3.0%) had ever been referred for genetic counseling. The main reason for previous genetic counseling was consanguinity (85.7%). The majority of the participants (96.3%) had never been tested for any genetic conditions. Our findings suggest that only a small proportion of couples in Khuzestan Province, Iran (Behbahan City) were receiving adequate genetics care. This may reflect the limited accessibility of such services, and inadequate awareness and education among the care providers.