Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in 16 sites in three industrial regions in Poland was analysed to delineate dendroclimatologically uniform areas. A dendrochronological and mass spectrometric analysis revealed the following: a dry and sunny previous September, low winter temperature, and moisture supply in July limit the radial growth of the pines in all the regions. The weather conditions of the current growing season have been the most strongly reflected in the isotopic ratio. Positive relationships were noted between δ13C and temperature and δ13C and sunshine. A negative relationship was observed between δ13C and precipitation and δ13C and humidity. At the same time, a positive relationship was noted between δ18O and sunshine and δ18O and temperature, but negative between δ18O and humidity. The climate signal recorded in the stable isotope composition was temporally unstable and only for a few of the climatic parameters did we find temporally stable climate signals. However, variability in the strength and direction of the relationships between variables has been observed. In general, the weather in July and August is important for determining the δ13C and δ18O signals. Instability can reflect the physiological adaptation of the plants to changes in the ecosystem.
Local Chronologies and Regional Diversity of Dendrochronological Signal of Douglas Fir in Poland
In Poland, 50 sites of Douglas fir were selected for which tree-ring chronologies were computed. Douglas fir in different parts of Poland has a specific increment rhythm, on the basis of which the four homogeneous dendrochronological zones were distinguished. The first zone (I) comprises Pomerania, Baltic coast, Warmia, and Mazuria (lowlands of northern Poland), the second zone (II) - Great Poland, Lower Silesia (lowlands of central Poland), the third zone (III) - the Sudetes and the Carpathian mountains, and the fourth zone (IV) - foothills of the Carpathians Mts., Roztocze, and the Świętokrzyskie Mts. (uplands of southern Poland). These areas are called the dendroclimatic zones because different thermo-pluvial conditions of the summer season were a cause of diversification of the Douglas fir increment rhythm, and in consequence of its chronology. A high similarity of site chronologies of a given region permitted to construct regional tree-ring chronologies for respective zones. Thermal conditions of the winter season (February - March) were the factor most strongly and similarly affecting radial increment of Douglas fir populations in the entire territory of Poland. This factor caused that all chronologies showed many similar traits in their progress. This fact permitted to construct the supra-regional (all-Polish) tree-ring chronology for this tree species. It comprises the period from 1900 to 2000, and it is a good standard for dating Douglas fir wood samples originating from the area of Poland.
Tree-Ring Chronology as a Source of Information on Susceptibility of Sitka Spruce to Climatic Conditions of Pomerania (Northern Poland)
This paper presents results concerning climatic conditions affecting diameter growth of Sitka spruce introduced to Baltic Pomerania (Sławno Forest District). A relatively high homogeneity of tree-ring series permitted to construct on their basis the tree-ring chronology of Sitka spruce. A significant positive correlation was found between radial increments of Sitka spruce and air temperatures of winter and spring months (January-April) and a negative relationship between radial increments and temperature of May. This study also showed a distinctly positive correlation between diameter growth and precipitation in July and November of the previous year, and precipitation in February and in summer season (June-August) of the current year. During years with low precipitation in summer or low temperatures in winter and spring all trees produced narrow tree-rings. The proportion of air temperature and precipitation in variation of radial increment of Sitka spruce, expressed by the coefficient of multiple determination, was 52%.
The Effect of Climate on Tree-Ring Chronologies of Native and Nonnative Tree Species Growing Under Homogenous Site Conditions
Dendroclimatic studies were carried out in the experimental stands composed of many tree species situated in the Polish part of the Baltic sea-coast. Increment cores were taken from a 100-years old trees of 2 native species: Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 3 nonnative species: Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). Thirty trees of each species were cored. The relationships between the diameter increment and the thermal and pluvial conditions during the period from 1925 to 2005 were analyzed on the basis of standardized tree-ring chronologies and climatic data. It was found that precipitation and temperature of the growing season and months preceding that season affected the annual diameter increment of all investigated tree species. The current year winter and early spring temperatures as well as February and August precipitation had a similar effect on the variation of diameter increment of trees. On the other hand thermal and pluvial conditions of the current year June differentiated the increment rhythm of individual species. A very strong negative effect on diameter growth of trees was observed in the case of winter and early spring frosts. Norway spruce turned out to be a species most resistant to low temperatures. The investigated tree species, especially Norway spruce, was susceptible to water deficiency in the soil during spring and summer. In the case of Scots pine a high precipitation in June stimulated its growth. The diameter increments of Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, Scots pine, and Silver fir were more strongly connected with air temperature than with precipitation. So called all-species chronology of tree-ring width, constructed during this study, permitted to verify the factors having a similar effect on growth response of the investigated tree species. It reflected the mutual characteristics of diameter increments of trees of various species.
The main aims of these studies were dendrochronological and mass spectrometric analysis of the impact of climate on tree rings width and stable isotopes composition in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The conifers were growing in the vicinity of chemical and nitrogen factories in Kędzierzyn-Koźle (Poland) in the period of time from 1920s to 2012 AD. The combined usage of tree ring width and isotopic composition data provides historic records of the environment changes. These data allows identifying the behavior adaptation of pine growing under pollution stress to climate changes. The incremental rhythm of the studied pine populations was not identical, probably due to their different sensitivities to some climatic factors. This study evidences that the isotopic records in tree-rings α-cellulose may be sensitive bio-indicators of the way that the components of air and water may be changed by the trees in response to the climate changes and anthropogenic effects. The water use efficiency may be strongly correlated with variability of the surface temperature that may be due to increase of CO2 emission.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensitivity of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from the Rudnik Forest District on the selected meteorological elements and to develop a chronology of local tree-ring width and the annual sensitivity.
Based on the analysis, the site chronology of silver fir was developed and the strength of the relationship between the climate components and the width of annual rings was calculated. In addition, we examined the degree of homogeneity of short-term incremental response, rated the representativeness of the chronology and climate signal strength.
Having analysed the indicator years, namely 1932–2013, we concluded that the growth of firs was positively influenced mainly by air temperature in winter, and to a lesser extent, by precipitation in spring and summer. The main factors that limit its growth are cold winters, cool and low rainfall summers, and rainy springs.
Metasequoia glyptostroboides is considered to be a species highly resistant to harmful environmental factors. For this reason it has been introduced to the cities. The climate of Krakow differs from that in its natural range in China. The research was focused on 40-year-old trees, planted in Kraków on fertile alluvial soils with a low level of ground water, in the vicinity of the steelworks. During the period of the highest level of air pollution in the 1970s and 1980s, the radial increment of investigated trees showed an increasing trend. At the end of the 1980s, when the emissions were reduced, a decreasing trend in radial growth was recorded. Throughout the entire period of their life the investi-gated trees have shown high homogeneity of short-term growth reactions. The sensitivity chronology of the trees was characterized by a high representativeness and a strong high-frequency signal. This may indicate that the investigated trees have shown a large sensitivity to climatic factors.
The positive effect on the radial growth of Metasequoia had a cold September in the previous year, and also a cold January, April and May in the year of ring formation. Positive impact on the growth of trees had also the high precipitation occurring in April and August, as well as high air humidity in the spring of the year of ring formation. In the period 1974–2011 fifteen signature years were found. The analysis of the climatic conditions in these years confirms the results of the statistical analyses.
This study reports the variation of tree-ring widths and annual variation of concentration of metals (Na, Mg, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) in pine growing nearby chemical factories. The conifers (Pinus silvestris L.) investigated in this study covered the time span from 1920s to 2010 AD. Tree-ring widths were measured, dated and rechecked using the COFECHA. Radial trace-element profiles were determined by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The combined usage of tree ring width and chemical composition of wood provides historic records of anthropogenic impact on the environment and allows identifying the behavior adaptation of trees to the pollution. Data of pine tree cores collected from the sites nearby chemical factories show increasing levels of pollution linked to the increasing of industrial activities in Poland and subsequent dust fallout around the site. This study evidences that tree rings can be used as archives of past environmental contamination.