The aim of the study was the recognition of profile structure and main physical properties of humus-rich endogley soils, which form muddy-alluvial habitats, and soils appearing together with them in a catena developed in the Upper Narew Valley near Sura¿. Plant communities growing on these soils were also recognized. Typological development of the analysed soils is clearly connected with microrelief of flood terrace, water conditions and vegetation cover. The most moisture positions taken by humus-rich endogley soils are overgrown by Glycerietum maximae community. Typic czernozemic alluvial and mucky-like soils with Phalaridetum arundinaceae community are found slightly higher. In the highest and the most dried parts of the analysed terrain mucky soils overgrown by plant community with domination of Alopecurus pratensis appears. Due to lower ash content physical properties of humus-rich endogley soils and peaty-like deposits considerably distinguish from properties of the other soils and deposits founded on the study area.
The aim of the study was to determine the morphological characteristics of selected spring-heads in the Knyszyńska Primeval Forest and to identify lithological conditions in areas where groundwater flows to the surface. During the study, detailed bed level measurements of the spring-head areas were conducted. Lidar laser data obtained from the Central Department of Geodetic and Cartographic Documentation in Warsaw were also used for the analysis of morphometry. Based on the data, the detailed contour maps were created in the Surfer 12 programme and the basic parameters of the morphometry of the studied springs were determined. To detect lithological conditions, granulometric analyses were conducted and the filtration coefficient of aquifers in the individual spring-heads was calculated using Hazen and USBSC empirical models. Due to the morphological situation, the examined objects were classified as sub-slope and riverbank spring-heads. In terms of shape, spring-head alcoves are classified as basin-shaped, bowl-shaped and spindle-shaped alcoves. Different morphological processes prevail in each of these types. Basin-shaped alcoves are formed mainly by lateral erosion, bowlshaped alcoves by seepage erosion, landsliding and accumulation in the bottom, spindle-shaped alcoves by seepage erosion, headward erosion, breaking and collapsing. In the investigated outflows of groundwater aquifers are sands and glacifluvial sands with gravel of varying grain size. The lithological variation of aquifers in the spring-heads, directly affects the rate of groundwater filtration in different parts of the alcoves, which in turn leads to different morphogenetic processes and results in changes in the morphology of the spring-head alcoves.