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Sławomir Gonkowski

Abstract

Retrograde neuronal tracing, using fast blue, in combination with a single-labelling immunofluorescence technique, was applied to determine whether somatostatin (SOM) participates in sensory innervating of the porcine adrenal glands in physiological conditions and after adrenalectomy. In control animals, SOM-like immunoreactive neurons comprised 7.0 ± 0.7% of adrenal gland-projecting cells in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at neuromeres Th6-7 and 6.5 ± 1.2% at neuromeres Th12-14. After adrenalectomy the percentage of SOM-positive DRG cells considerably increased and attained the level of 44.7 ± 2.5% at neuromeres Th6-7 and 36.6 ± 1.7% at neuromeres Th12-14. The obtained results demonstrate that SOM is not only a neuromediator within sensory neurones supplying the porcine adrenal glands, but also suggest the role of this substance during repairing processes within the nervous system after adrenalectomy.

Open access

Sławomir Gonkowski, Piotr Burliński, Piotr Szwajca and Jarosław Całka

Abstract

The distribution pattern of CART- like immunoreactive (CART-LI) nerve structures was studied by a double immunofluorescence technique in the circular muscle layer, myenteric (MP), outer submucous (OSP), and inner submucous plexuses (ISP), as well as in the mucosal layer of porcine descending colon under physiological conditions and during proliferative enteropathy (PE). In control animals, CART-LI perikarya have been shown to constitute 3.18 ±0.51%, 3.44 ±0.6%, and 3.33 ±0.72% in MP, OSP, and ISP, respectively. PE caused a decrease in the number of CART - LI neurons in MP and ISP. In OSP, the observed changes were not statistically significant. During PE, the number of CART-LI perikarya amounted to 2.18 ±0.27%, 3.07 ±0.06%, and 0.07 ±0.02% within MP, OSP, and ISP, respectively. Moreover, PE caused an increase in the number of CART-LI nerve fibers in the colonic circular muscle and mucosal layers as well as in MP. This study describes for the first time changes in CART-LI nerve structures of the porcine descending colon during Lawsonia intracellularis infection, and suggests the participation of this neuropeptide in the regulation of gut functions, not only under physiological conditions, but also during pathological processes.

Open access

Sławomir Gonkowski, Andrzej Rychlik and Jarosław Całka

Abstract

Changes in the density of mucosal pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide-27 -like immunoreactive (PACAP-27 - LI) nerve fibers within various parts of the canine gastrointestinal (GI) tract during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were investigated. The distribution of nerves were studied, using a single-labelling immunofluorescence technique, in the mucosal layer of canine stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and descending colon. Canine IBD caused an increase in the density of PACAP- 27-LI mucosal nerves in all studied parts of GI tract. The results suggest that PACAP in the nervous system may be involved in pathological processes during IBD.

Open access

Krystyna Makowska and Sławomir Gonkowski

Abstract

Since its first description over 30 years ago, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has been the subject of many studies. Most of these investigations pertain to occurrence and functions of CART within the central nervous system, where this peptide first of all takes part in regulation of feeding, stress reactions, as well as neuroprotective and neuroregenerative processes. However, in recent years more and more studies concern the presence of CART in the gastrointestinal system. This peptide has been described both in stomach and intestine, as well as in other digestive organs such as pancreas or gallbladder. Particularly much information relates to distribution of CART in the enteric nervous system, which is located within the wall of digestive tract. Other studies have described this peptide in intestinal endocrinal cells. Moreover, it is known that CART can be present in various types of neuronal cells and may co-localize with different types of other neuronal active substances, which play roles of neuromediators and/or neuromodulators. On the other hand precise functions of CART in the gastrointestinal system still remain unknown. It is assumed that this peptide is involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, intestinal blood flow, secretion of intestinal juice, somatostatin and/or insulin, as well as takes part in pathological processes within the gastrointestinal tract. The large number of recent studies concerning the above mentioned problems makes that knowledge about occurrence and functions of CART in the digestive system rather piecemeal and requires clarifying, which is the aim of the present article.

Open access

Andrzej Rychlik, Sławomir Gonkowski, Marcin Nowicki, Jarosław Całka and Marta Szweda

Abstract

The effect of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on the density of galanin - immunoreactive (GAL-IR) nerve fibers was determined in the mucosa of canine duodenum, jejunum, and descending colon. Fiber density was evaluated by a single immunofluorescence method in biopsy specimens obtained from healthy dogs and patients with variable severity of the disease. The density of GAL-IR nerve fibers was determined by the semi-quantitative method by counting fibers in the field of view (0.l mm2). Fiber density was higher in dogs with moderate and severe IBD than in healthy animals. The results of the study suggest that GAL present in intestinal nerve fibers could play a role in the pathogenesis and development of canine IBD.

Open access

Michał Bulc, Sławomir Gonkowski and Jarosław Całka

Abstract

The hypothalamus synthesizes molecules involved in the regulation of feeding behaviour. Nesfatin- 1 is a recently discovered substance expressed in both the brain and peripheral tissues and exerts a strong anorectic action. Nesfatin-1-immunoreactive cell bodies are distributed in arcuate (ARC), paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei, where the peptide has been found to be co-expressed with pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), oxytocin (OX) and vasopressin (VP). More detailed studies have shown a wide distribution of nesfatin-1-positive neurons in several brain areas, such as the forebrain, hindbrain, brainstem and spinal cord. Moreover, nesfatin-1 has been also expressed in peripheral tissues, colocalizing with ghrelin in the gastric mucosa and insulin in β-cells of the endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue. Functional studies have revealed that exogenous nesfatin-1 administered into the brain ventricles, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally, was able to decrease both food intake in the dark phase as well as body weight gain in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, recent findings suggest the involvement of nesfatin-1 in the control of insulin secretion as well as immune and stress-related responses. However, since there is still a deficiency of data concerning the nesfatin-1 receptor, the possible implementation of nesfatin-1 analogs during human metabolic disorders requires further study.

Open access

Anna Snarska, Dominika Wysocka, Liliana Rytel, Krystyna Makowska and Sławomir Gonkowski

Abstract

Introduction: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a substance widely used in industry for the production of polycarbonates and epoxy resins used in packaging and containers for beverages, contact lenses, compact discs (CDs), window panes, and many other elements. This compound belongs to the group of polyphenols and xenoestrogens commonly found in the human environment. What we know about BPA is still insufficient to enable us to protect our health against its adverse effects, and current knowledge of the influence of BPA on erythroblastic cell lines in bone marrow is rather fragmentary. The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of two doses of BPA (0.05 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per day) on myeloid haematopoiesis.

Material and Methods: During this experiment, the number of all types of cells in the erythroblastic cell line was evaluated in porcine bone marrow before and after BPA administration.

Results: The obtained results clearly indicate changes in haematopoietic activity of the bone marrow, which was demonstrated by a decrease in erythroblastic cell line production in both experimental groups. The haematological effects of the bone marrow changes were anaemia, caused by a number of erythrocytes which was depressed due to their immaturity, and a significant decrease in mean cellular volume in both groups.

Conclusion: The harmful effect of high and low doses of BPA on haematopoietic processes was proved.

Open access

Anna Snarska, Dominika Wysocka, Liliana Rytel, Sławomir Gonkowski, Hanna Pawelec and Przemysław Sobiech

Abstract

Introduction: Simvastatin is a substance which is commonly used as a medicine to reduce cholesterol level. Unfortunately, it shows numerous side effects. Simvastatin affects various internal organs, and among other detriments to health may cause persistent muscle weakness, osteolytic processes, headaches, and rashes. Until now knowledge of the influence of simvastatin on bone marrow cells has been rather scant and fragmentary.

Material and Methods: During this experiment the numbers of all types of cells in the leukocytic system of porcine bone marrow were evaluated after 28 and 56 days of oral administration of simvastatin at a dose of 40 mg/day/animal.

Results: Simvastatin caused an increase in the number of all types of cells in the leukocytic system, and the most visible fluctuations concerned promyelocytes.

Conclusion: Observations obtained during the present study indicated that the results of the action of simvastatin on porcine bone marrow differ from those observed in other mammal species, including human. This may be due to various metabolic pathways within the bone marrow in the particular species, but the exact mechanisms of these actions are unknown at the present time.