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  • Author: Sławomir Dorocki x
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Biotechnology is considered one of the key advanced technology sectors of the future. Its development is conditional on basic research in technologically advanced research institutes and appropriately qualified human resources. The optimum environment stimulating the development of biotechnology is that of production centres having joint industrial and R&D operations.

The growth of this sector in Germany began later than in the USA or other West European countries. But, thanks to the regional policy pursued by the state stimulating the development of biotechnology clusters, in a period of fifteen years or so, Germany has become the global leader. This paper presents the process of developing biotechnology centres in Germany as well as their spatial distribution, accompanied by their short description.


The aim of this paper is to discuss changes in the spatial distribution of cities that perform the command and control function created by the largest corporations, based on the method of gravity centres. The analysis was performed both for individual sectors of the economy as well as for the global scale. A shift occurred in an easterly direction. This also pertains to sector indices, although the centroids of knowledge-based sectors, such as information technology and healthcare, shifted the most in the direction of Asia. At the same time, information technology was the only sector whose centroid shifted to the west in the study period. Moreover, the magnitude of the shift of the centre of gravity of the number of corporate headquarters in the studied cities does not converge to the shift of the centroid based on the value of the financial potential of the companies.


The article discusses the issue of spatial distribution and diversity of educational potential of Higher Education (HE) urban centres described by the number of students and HE institutions as well as their structure in terms of types in the regions of France in 1998‒2008. According to the research results it appears that the actions undertaken in order to level the socio-economic development of the regions of France, i.e. increasing the quality of human capital, resulted in an even distribution of HE centres, their high educational potential and lack of regional specificity in terms of the structure of the educational offer.