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  • Author: Sławomir Świerczyński x
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Sławomir Świerczyński and Krzysztof Czaplewski

ABSTRACT

In the last years considerable emphasis has been placed on safety at sea. There is the maritime security and surveillance system whose main aim is to execute tasks in the interests of maritime safety and to react in case of emergency. They are monitored by networks of radar stations. On such areas we obtain a lot of navigation data which could be used to improve ship’s parameters (position), using know in geodesy modern M-estimation methods. Simultaneous acquisition of navigational information from many independent radar stations will render it possible to obtain a more accurate ship position in marine traffic surveillance systems in relation to the calculated position. A position expected in an adjustment calculus is received from a watch officer. It is burdened with a fallacy of navigation systems and the quality of marking ship’s route on a map. In the case of navigational-parameter measurements used for depicting ship position, one can obtain incorrect results due to a disturbance in the measurement process. In extreme cases, such erroneous data could significantly differ from the anticipated results. Deviating observations could significantly influence the values of measurement results. In order to eliminate the determination of erroneous measurements, one could use resistant estimation methods with suitably selected attenuation functions. The accuracy of a determined position will not be better than the capabilities of the device used. Adjustment gives the possibility of eliminating or minimizing human errors as well as the errors in the indications of navigational devices. This paper presents the latest robust estimation methods using Danish attenuation function for adjustment of navigational observation, using radar observation.

Open access

Sławomir Świerczyński and Krzysztof Czaplewski

Abstract

In order to improve maritime safety and the efficiency of vessel traffic, systems supervising vessel traffic, i.e. VTS (Vessel Traffic Service), started to be created. These systems are aimed to control vessel traffic in waters where traffic congestion, a large concentration of vessels or the presence of navigational hazards creates a risk of collision or stranding.

VTS systems constitute maritime safety centres and they must be equipped with appropriate devices in order to be fully functional. Among devices that provide information about vessels are coastal radar stations which are located around a monitored sea area. This kind of spatial arrangement of these stations can be used to simultaneously obtain information about every vessel, but such observations may be fraught with serious errors. Therefore, the estimation methods that are employed and developed in geodesy can be used to improve the accuracy with which a vessel’s position is determined. The Interactive Navigational Structure, i.e. IANS, is an example of how these methods can be applied in navigation; this term has already been introduced into the literature (Czaplewski, 2004). The text below presents the theoretical assumptions underlying the use of IANS as a tool supporting a vessel traffic controller using the VTS system in his/her work. This presentation is supported by a numerical test that was performed in the waters of the Bay of Gdańsk which are covered by the VTS system.

Open access

Sławomir Świerczyński and Piotr Zwolan

Abstract

In the Polish law harbour infrastructure is one of key elements to determine the various cargo types, available means of transport and, ultimately, the significance of any sea port. The structures, devices and installations situated within a port’s boundaries, dedicated to the swift operation of the port, are all designed for tasks that involve the best use of this infrastructure.

The proper development and modernization of this infrastructure may well result in improved cooperation with road networks and transportation on land. Owing to modern technology, it is possible to scan the surrounding buildings or location with great accuracy and render three-dimensional models of the scanned objects.

These models can be used to generate harbour maps with a detailed 3D picture of the entire port and navigational infrastructure. The authors of this article present the possible applications of modern laser scanning technology in port infrastructure surveying, and in particular in the survey of a complicated wharf line on the Motława River along Długie Pobrzeże Street in Gdańsk.

Open access

Krzysztof Czaplewski, Sambor Guze and Sławomir Świerczyński

Abstract

The main source of information on the situation across the sea basins used by operators of shipping monitoring systems is a network of coastal radar stations. Presently, it is possible to gather navigational information from many individual radar stations simultaneously, which may be used for improving the accuracy of vessel position fixing. However, without making other estimates, we obtain an inconsistent image comprising multiple echoes of the same ship, and as such it is impossible to say which echo presents the vessel on the move. Another problem is the method of performing radar observations, which significantly affects the accuracy of position fixing. The estimated radar distance is encumbered with a gross error in the case of large vessels, as the position of a large vessel is not the same as the position of the edge of the radar echo to which the estimation is made. In this paper, the authors present a method to adjust the measured radar distance. The proposed method may be automated easily, which would significantly enhance VTS positioning processes.

Open access

Sławomir Świerczyński, Piotr Zwolan and Ilona Rutkowska

Abstract

The whole world is dependent on satellite systems as they are used in almost all fields of economic and social life, in transport, banking, industry, agriculture, etc. Thanks to the development of technology, most smartphones used everyday have been equipped with a built-in GNSS receiver, many cars with navigation systems and all vessels with GNSS receiver or a satellite compass for navigation. Systems working on similar frequencies can be used for jamming or spoofing satellite systems. Such purposeful system jamming can be damaging to users and society as a whole. This article includes a description of jamming and a presentation of one of possible receiver designs allowing for jamming signal detection. This receiver has been designed and built by the authors of the article.

Open access

Andrzej Felski, Krzysztof Naus, Sławomir Świerczyński, Mariusz Wąż and Piotr Zwolan

Abstract

The process of the ships docking, especially very large ships, is an very risky operation in confined and busy port waters. The similar difficult is the task to pass along any channel, river, strait or similar water road. The basic difficulty causes maneuvering with the great mass of the ship in situation of small space to maneuvers, the large inertia of the object and poor maneuvering properties at small speeds occurring in such circumstances. An additional factor, which make this task more difficult is the influence of the wind and the sea current on the hull of the inert ship as well as consequences of the limited visibility. The bad weather can cause the necessity to delay the maneuver. However this joins with heavy costs. An alternative is usage of systems supporting this process.

In this paper nowadays accessible systems for augmentation the docking and harbor navigation are analysed. There are: shore based (active or passive) and ship based (active). This paper is prepared in the frame of Bonus project call 2012 ‘The Captain Assistant system for Navigation and Routing during Operations in Harbor’.