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Open access

József Gyurácz, Sándor Kalmár and Réka Baráth


The local abundance and spatial distribution of the short- to medium-distance migratory and daytime stopover passerines (Robin Erithacus rubecula, Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita, Blue tit Parus caeruleus, Great tit P. major) were studied in a West Hungarian stopover ground during post-breeding season. The dispergation index of all migratory bird species revealed clumped distribution both in „smallest annual capture year” (abb. SACY) and the „largest annual capture year” (abb. LACY). According to the PCA the spatial occurrences of Blackcap, Blue tit and Great tit captured in LACY showed significantly higher concentration than of those migrating in SACY. The studied species appeared in all four habitats (bushy, forest, grassland, marsh) of the study stopover area, but their clumped spatial distribution showed habitat preference. The abundance-dependent shift of habitat selection was found only in Great tit, the most of them captured in SACY concentrated in grassland with bushy, while the ones captured in LACY grouped in forest habitat type. Blackcaps were grouped the grassland with bushes habitat type where many Dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus) bushes were available during autumn migration.

Open access

Sándor Bollók, Johanna Takács, Zsuzsanna Kalmár and Beáta Dobay

External and internal sport motivations of young adults

Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults.

Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17 - 19 years, participated in the study. An ad hoc questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical fitness and health + sportsman-like attitude, and hedonistic.

Results: Competition, contest, victory and beating own benchmark were the important factors for male students. The female students preferred external adequacy and others' opinion. They believed in the importance of healthy living, physical strength and sports give them better appearance. The motivational factors had more importance amongst active than inactive youths. Young active students believed that sport performance would guide them to success.

Conclusions: It is important to keep healthy lifestyle and sport motivation before teenage years since it is a guidance to preserve the health and adequate personality development.

Open access

József Gyurácz, Péter Bánhidi, József Góczán, Péter Illés, Sándor Kalmár, Péter Koszorús, Zoltán Lukács, Csaba Németh and László Varga


The fieldwork, i.e. catching and ringing birds using mist-nets, was conducted at Tömörd Bird Ringing Station in western Hungary during the post-breeding migration seasons in 1998-2016. Altogether, 106,480 individuals of 133 species were ringed at the station. The aim of this paper was to publish basic information on passerine migration at this site. Migration phenology was described through annual and daily capture frequencies. Furthermore, we provide the median date of the passage, the date of the earliest or latest capture, the peak migration season within the study period, and the countries where the birds monitored at the site were ringed or recovered abroad. To compare the catching dynamics for the fifty species with total captures greater than 200, a reference period was defined: from 5 Aug. to 5 Nov. 2001-2016. Some non-passerines that are more easily caught with mist-nets or that are caught occasionally were listed as well. The two superdominant species, the European Robin and the Eurasian Blackcap, with 14,377 and 13,926 total captures, made up 27% of all ringed individuals. Among the fifty species analysed, there were ten species with a decreasing trend, five species with an increasing trend and thirty-five species with a stable (or uncertain) trend in their numbers from 2001 to 2016. The temporal pattern of migration of long-distance migrants was different from that of the medium- and short-distance migratory species.