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Ryszard Panfil

A Paradigm for Identifying Ability Competition (Providing Examples of Sport Game and Fight)

Effective competition for access to social resources is dependent on skills defined also as competences for action, cooperation and counteraction. Therefore, the objective of the study was to formulate a consistent set of criteria by means of which it would be possible to ensure objective identification of an individual's skills to take action in competitive conditions, with particular attention to sport game and fight. It was assumed as the basis of the paradigm that the skill of sport game and fight is the conscious or intuitive application of solutions surprising the competitor by their uniqueness, choices or speed of action. The following criteria were distinguished among the criteria proposed for identifying competitive skills: surprise by creativity of action shown by precision, flexibility and uniqueness of performance, surprise by choice indicated by the dynamics of the repertoire of actions, and surprise by speed of action resulting from increasing velocity or making use of the variability of rhythm, speed and direction of action. The concept presented appears to be a consistent paradigm of objectivized identification of competitive skills. On the basis of this identification, it is possible to formulate practical directives which allow for the improvement of processes: educating, coaching, or managing the development of competences with respect to effective competition for access to social resources, including sports resources.

Open access

Ryszard Panfil and Edward Superlak

The Relationships Between the Effectiveness of Team Play and the Sporting Level of A Team

Purpose. This study aimed at determining what relationships exist between the determinants of team play efficiency (cooperation) for creating scoring situations in volleyball and the sporting level of a team. These relationships take into consideration the number of players who cooperate within a team and the speed at which sets are performed. Methods. The study gathered observational data on how three leading male volleyball teams, namely Brazil, Russia and Serbia, played in the semi-finals of the 2010 World League, finishing first, second and fourth, respectively. The research tool was a self-made data registration sheet which included the description of the chosen variables, namely the type of plays used and how sets were formed, and the criteria for their quantification. The collected results were presented as tables and indexes. An interdisciplinary interpretation of the results was conducted, which included a qualitative identification of the dependencies that existed between the chosen variables. Results. The efficiency of team cooperation when solving situational problems in the offense was not significantly different in the analysed teams. The prevailing activities during the game were those performed in the 2nd tempo, i.e. team play requiring the coordination and synchronization of three players. Players' activity as well as the performance efficiency of the sets they performed in the 2nd tempo increased along with an increase in the sporting efficiency of the examined teams. In the case of sets performed in the 3rd tempo, activity and the efficiency of coordination declined along with the growth of sports efficiency. The suggested indexes of the employment and application of synergy enable us to determine its level within the teams which differ in regards to sports efficiency. A diagnostic value of the index of synergy usage, which is determined by the efficiency of sets in various paces, is higher than a diagnostic value of the index that is determined by the activity of team play. Conclusions. Nowadays, sport teams, especially those which play volleyball at the highest world level, are characterized by a high level of dynamic organization of players' activities, which is manifested in the game with the high efficiency of team play when solving situational problems in the offense, particularly with the use of two or three players conducted in the 1st and 2nd tempos.

Open access

Mariusz Nowak and Ryszard Panfil


Purpose. Many studies analyzing the game of tennis overlook assessing such variables as the pure ability to play the game or the skill needed to take an opponent by surprise. This can be quantified in terms of a player’s shot flexibility, variability, velocity, or by the conscious or intuitive adaptability one can possess towards anticipating return shots, how best to hit the ball in order to keep it in play, as well as the buildup of delivering a shot or in scoring a point. The aim of the study was to identify the ability to score points in tennis based on an original set of assessment criteria that were used to measure the different effective plays against an opponent. This included measuring the variability, spatial flexibility and variability of shots taken, as well as the willingness to make risky plays. Methods. The study analyzed the match play of two elite tennis players, Roger Federer and Novak Djokovic, who competed against one another in the final of the 2007 US Open and the semi-final of 2008 Australian Open. Video recording of the two games was used to score and measure the proposed criteria. Results. The study found numerous quantitative and qualitative aspects that could assess the performance of the players. This included measuring the variety, spatial flexibility and variability of shots taken, as well as the willingness to make risky plays. Shot variety, flexibility and variability, as well as the amount of risk taken during game play, were quantifiable in nature. Taking into account the high sporting level of the players, the obtained results are undoubtedly of considerable educational value. Conclusion. The results allow for the conclusion that the teaching process in tennis demands the introduction of significant modifications aimed at the rationalization of technique and the introduction of criteria that can measure player effectiveness.