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Ryszard Oleszczuk and Milena Truba

Abstract

The analysis of some physical properties of drained peat-moorsh soil layers. The paper presents the results of measurements of some physical properties for 14 drained fen peat-moorsh layers (degree of decomposition, bulk density, particle density, porosity and saturated moisture content). The soil samples were taken from north- -east, central and east part of Poland. These areas were drained in order to use as a grassland and meadows. The article presents obtained data of selected physical properties from several drained peatlands in Poland and shows the comparison of established results with relevant data published in literature.

Open access

Milena Truba and Ryszard Oleszczuk

Abstract

The analysis of some basic chemical and physical properties of drained fen peat and moorsh soil layers. The paper presents the results of measurements of some chemical properties for 14 drained fen peat-moorsh layers taken from north-east, central and east part of Poland. These areas were drained in order to use as a grassland and most of them in former time were under sub- -irrigation systems. The following basic chemical properties were analysed: organic C, total N, C:N ratio, pH and ash content. In the paper also the relationships between some basic chemical and physical properties were analysed (ash content with bulk density, particle density and porosity). Increasing of ash content caused the decreasing of some chemical properties (organic carbon and total nitrogen content) and increasing some physical properties (bulk density and particle density).

Open access

Ryszard Oleszczuk, Janusz Urbański and Monika Gąsowska

Abstract

The influence of morphological changes of small lowland river on discharge rate. The aim of the study was the comparison of the changes of cross-sections and longitudinal profile of the Mała river at the distance of 600 m. The paper presents the geometry changes of the river from field measurements made in 2013 in comparison with design assumptions from 1967 which were implemented in 1971. The four (available historical) cross-sections (hm 7+700, 7+800, 7+900, 8+000) and longitudinal profile (hm 7+700÷8+300) of the river were analysed and compared. The large scale of subsidence of the land surface on both banks was observed (even to 0.5 m). Probably it is the effect of peat shrinkage and mineralization processes of organic soils. The bottom of the Mała river was still located at the same altitude in sand deposits in the analysed period 1971-2013. The designed slope of bottom of the Mała river equals 0.7‰ (1967) and present slope (2013) was estimated to be around 1‰. The subsidence of peat layers on both river banks, changes in cross-sections’ parameters (present irregular shapes in comparison with designed trapezoidal cross-sections) caused the reduction of cross-sectional area and water discharge of about 40-50% in comparison with parameters designed in 1967 and made in 1971.

Open access

Piotr Hewelke, Edyta Hewelke, Ryszard Oleszczuk and Marcin Kwas

Abstract

The aim of the studies was the assessment of the usefulness of selected pedotransfer function for calculating the water retention of alluvial soils in Żuławy Wiślane. Żuławy Wiślane are an important area, both as far as agricultural production and environmental values are concerned. The analysis accounted for three models, i.e.: van Genuchten-Wösten, Varellyay and Mieronienko, Hewelke et al. Based on 122 dataset of alluvial soils from the Żuławy area, the statistical relationships between the measured values of total available water and values calculated for individual models were analysed. The studies carried out indicate that the analysed pedotransfer functions are characterized by different compatibilities with results obtained by means of direct measurement. The lowest average errors of fit were obtained for the Hewelke et al. and van Genuchten models.