The research area is located in the Ina Valley of the West Pomeranian Voivods hip, along the border between two counties Choszczno and Stargard. The majority of this area is covered by the largest wetland in Western Pomerania, which is under legal protection. The aim of the study was to identify chemical properties and typological variability of organic soils of the Ina Valley. On the basis of field studies, four sites that were characterised by the main soil types occurring on the study area were designated. By the river bed, a narrow strip of alluvial, clay-organic sediments was found, from which muddy-gley soils developed. The largest part of the central valley was composed of organic low moor peat deposits, from which organic fibric-muck soils, in the third degree of decomposition, evolved. The edge of the valley, on shallow organic sediments, was covered by highly decomposed organic sapricmuck and mucky soils. The richest resources of organic matter were recorded in fibric-muck soils and the poorest in muddy-gley soils. The reaction of soils derived from peat was slightly acid or neutral and alkaline for alluvial deposits. All examined soils were characterised by a very low content of available phosphorus and potassium whereas the amount of available magnesium varied, depending on the soil subtype. Very low concentrations of available magnesium were obtained in sapric-muck and mucky soils, medium in muddy gley soils and high or very high in fibric-muck soils. Total forms of microelements were present in considerable quantities and a very high share of available potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium in relation to total forms, in fibric-muck soil, attracts attention. In the case of other soil subtypes, only a high share of available calcium is observed.
The influence of copper salt, in a concentration range of 50–150 mg·dm−3, on the physiological response of basket willow was studied on Tora variety, which were grown in hydroponics. Content of assimilation pigments, relative water content (RWC), water saturation deficit (WSD), intensity of assimilation and transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate of water use efficiency (WUE) and instantaneous photosynthetic rate of water use (WUEI) were determined in leaves. It was observed that the decrease in the concentration of tested physiological parameters correlated with the increase in copper salt doses in the medium. The assimilation and transpiration of basket willow were significantly limited by stomata. The addition of copper salt to the medium increased WSD in leaves of the basket willow. The obtained results of the studied physiological parameters may prove useful for the assessment of resistance of the studied willow cultivar to stress caused by increased copper ion content in medium and its applicability in reclamation of areas degraded by humans.
This paper presents the state of knowledge on coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland. The properties of these soils are closely related to the influence of brackish water from the Baltic Sea, high accumulation of organic matter and human activity. The obtained results demonstrate that the sulphide accumulation in soils refers to a relatively small areas of the Polish coastal zone with the unique and very valuable habitats. They require an adequate regulation of the water relations to avoid the risk of strong soil acidification and environmental pollution by heavy metals. Currently, there are no relevant criteria for classification of acid sulphate soil materials in the Polish Soil Classification (2011). Therefore, based on the presented data, the authors proposed to identify these features at the lower classification level (for different soil types). The criteria for the Thionic and Sulfidic qualifiers used in the WRB classification (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015) could be accepted for this purpose.
In the bi-factor experience (I-st factor . municipal sewage sludge dose: I . 0; II . 10; III . 20; IV . 30 t×ha.1; II . nd factor . texture: A . light soil, B . heavy soil) was examined for the influence of municipal sewage sludge from Deir the Ez the Zor City in Syria on solubility of chemical components in water, in the conditions of Syria climate. The results of conducted investigations did not prove in appointed proprieties a positive change of light and heavy soil. The salinity of soil grew independently from applied dose sewage sludge, it did not change significantly the organic carbon amount, but concentration and dissolubility, for example Zn, Pb and Na, in both soils grew.
Raised and transitional peat bogs, despite their considerable resistance to synanthropization, as a result of anthropogenic transformations are exposed to the colonisation by alien species. One of them is the peatland “Roby”, where, in the years 2007-2009 and 2014, floristic, phytosociological and soil studies were carried out in order to record the signs of ongoing synanthropization. Conducted observations and analyses indicated that the expansion of willows has taken place and at present they occupy a large part of the bog, encroaching into bog birch forest and successfully competing with Myrica gale. Progressive peat mineralisation and constructed surfaced roads within the bog, contributed to the appearance and wide distribution of synanthropic species, such as: Urtica dioica, Impatiens parviflora and Spiraea salicifolia. Raised bog communities and their characteristic species occur on a few fragments of the bog, in north-western part, where water regime is shaped mainly by precipitation and peat deposit is fairly well-preserved. At the same time, in the patches of these communities, a distinct unfavourable increase in the share of Molinia caerulea is observed.
In this note experimental studies of tungsten (W) samples irradiated by intense plasma-ion streams are reported. Measurements were performed using the modified plasma focus device DPF-1000U equipped with an axial gas-puffing system. The main diagnostic tool was a Mechelle®900 optical spectrometer. The electron density of a freely propagating plasma stream (i.e., the plasma stream observed without any target inside the vacuum chamber) was estimated on the basis of the half-width of the Dβ spectral line, taking into account the linear Stark effect. For a freely propagating plasma stream the maximum electron density amounted to about 1.3 × 1017 cm−3 and was reached during the maximum plasma compression. The plasma electron density depends on the initial conditions of the experiments. It was thus important to determine first the plasma flow characteristics before attempting any target irradiation. These data were needed for comparison with plasma characteristics after an irradiation of the investigated target. In fact, spectroscopic measurements performed during interactions of plasma streams with the investigated W samples showed many WI and WII spectral lines. The surface erosion was determined from mass losses of the irradiated samples. Changes on the surfaces of the irradiated samples were also investigated with an optical microscope and some sputtering and melting zones were observed.