The cotton-based composite is equipped with a single/double semipermeable membrane made of polyurethane (PU) (100%), which blocks liquid transport to the surrounding environment. The complex problem analyzed involves the coupled transport of water vapor within the textile material, transport of liquid water in capillaries, as well as heat transport with vapor and liquid water. The problem can be described using the mass transport equation for water vapor, heat transport equation, and mass transport equation for liquid moisture, accompanied by the set of corresponding boundary and initial conditions. State variables are determined using a complex multistage solution procedure within the selected points for each layer. The distributions of state variables are determined for different configurations of membranes.
Let us next analyse the coupled problem during ironing of textiles, that is, the heat is transported with mass whereas the mass transport with heat is negligible. It is necessary to define both physical and mathematical models. Introducing two-phase system of mass sorption by fibres, the transport equations are introduced and accompanied by the set of boundary and initial conditions. Optimisation of material thickness during ironing is gradient oriented. The first-order sensitivity of an arbitrary objective functional is analysed and included in optimisation procedure. Numerical example is the thickness optimisation of different textile materials in ironing device.
Head is the most sensitive body part of neonate. Head that is considerably uncovered causes the significant heat and moisture loss from the skin to the surrounding areas. The main goal is to optimise the thickness of a multilayer composite textile bonnet to secure the optimal skin parameters. Problem is solved using both sensitivity analysis and material derivative concept. An arbitrary objective functional is introduced, its first-order sensitivity is formulated by means of a direct approach. Numerical application is the thickness optimisation of a composite bonnet made of different textile materials.
The paper is theoretically oriented. The main goal is to analyze the sensitivity of aerodynamic characteristics to the properties of the material used for paraglider wing. The paraglider of considerable dimensions is designed without stiffening elements. Thus, the covering material yields adequate pressure distribution between the external and internal parts of the wing. The problem is solved using a geometrical model approximated by the dimensionless coordinates of crucial points and smoothed by spline curves. The finite volume mesh is defined using the Ansys Meshing program. Numerical analysis uses five different covering materials, ranging from the air-impermeable covering to the covering subjected to hydrolytic—mechanical degradation. Optimization of properties of the covering material improves the lift force and the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing. Moreover, numerical modeling is more beneficial and efficient than prototype tests. The obtained pressure distributions and other parameters explain the aerodynamic safety of the paraglider during dynamic conditions of flight.