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Open access

Ryszard Biernat and Dariusz Czaprowski


Introduction:„Runner’s knee”, in other words Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS) is the second, after PFPS, in terms of incidence frequency overuse injury amongst runners - 8.5 %. It is the most common cause of lateral knee pain. It mainly occurs in middle aged athletes, in the second decade of life. Cyclists, skiers, weight lifters, soccer and tennis players are next groups, where this clinical entity occurs. ITBS is typical overuse injury which results from cyclic friction (or compression) of iliotibial band on lateral epicondyle of femur. Training errors are main risk factors. Biomechanical disorders leading to this entity are: weakness of gluteus medius, lack of functional hip mobility, weakness of knee flexors and extensors, shortness of hip adductors, limited hip internal rotation. Improper saddle height, frame size or incorrect pedal position can cause ITBS among cyclists.

Case study:Professional cyclist was referred to Rehabilitation Centre, complaining about severe pain located at lateral side of the right knee, lasting from 4 months. The pain was described as burning, sharp, increasing during biking, finally disabling him to continue sports activity. After biomechanical analysis we introduced functional re-education training correcting disbalances, the causes of injury. The role of tri-planar, eccentric exercises rotating the pelvis is underlined. After 7 weeks of aggressive, functional rehabilitation resumed sports activity without pain and functional limitations.

Conclusions:An early diagnosis of ITBS allows for shorter rehabilitation time. It’s necessary to precisely determine biomechanical disorders leading to ITBS. 7-week rehabilitation, with functional, three dimensional exercises is effective mean of ITBS treatment. We recommend to continue this kind of exercises for 6-12 months to prevent injury recurrence

Open access

Dariusz Czaprowski, Ryszard Biernat and Agnieszka Kędra

Squat - Rules of Performing and Most Common Mistakes

The squat is an exercise which is commonly applied in sport, recreation and while performing numerous everyday activities [1, 2, 3]. The improper performance of the squat leads to the shaping of an improper movement pattern.

In this work the methodology of teaching the squat, which has to be learnt to constitute a significant element in the prophylaxis of the musculoskeletal system overloads, is described.

Open access

Michał Wychowański, Ryszard Biernat and Agnieszka Witke


Introduction.Efficient locomotion in a wheelchair is of great importance for the life quality of people with diseases that make them unable to walk, and also in many sport disciplines for the handicapped. The aim of this study was to compare the grip strength with the force of propulsion of a constrained wheelchair for different positioning of the hand on the wheel, and to observe the influence of grip strength and static propulsion force of the wheelchair on the results of a test ride on a given box-shaped path. Materials and methods. 84 healthy subjects took part in the test (52 female and 32 male), each being a Physiotherapy student of the Joseph Rusiecki Academy in Olsztyn. The grip strength measurement was conducted using a tensometric dynamometer in a sitting position. The propelling force was measured in static conditions with a dynamometer in three different hand positions on the push rim. The ability to move efficiently on a wheelchair was assessed on a “box” shaped track with measured completion times. Results. It was observed that women have lower grip strength of both hands than men and that their middle phalanx is shorter. In both groups a significant correlation was observed between grip strength and anthropometric parameters: body height, body weight, length of middle phalanx and between grip strength of the left and right hands. It has been found that grip strength is significantly correlated with the propulsion force of the wheelchair in almost all positions of the hand on the wheel. There was no significant correlation between the force generated with the left hand on the middle of the rim and the grip strength measured with a dynamometer. Men also achieved better results during the “box” test. A significant positive correlation was observed between body mass of both male and female subjects and the time of completing the “box” test. No correlation was found between the time of completing the “box” test and the propulsion force measured in constrains. Conclusions. Men achieve higher values of propulsion force than women in all cases of hand positioning on the wheel. Both men and women achieve highest values of propulsion force when positioning the hands in front of the rim. In all measured positions the average propulsion force was higher for men. In the case of healthy people who are not accustomed to using a wheelchair, the time of completing the “box” test depended mostly on their technical abilities and not their physical strength.