Powder mixtures compaction behavior can be quantitatively expressed by densification equations that describe the relationship between densities - applied pressure during the compaction stages, using correction factors. The modelling of one phase (metal/ceramic) powders or two-phase metal-ceramic powder composites was studied by many researchers, using the most commonly compression equations (Balshin, Heckel, Cooper and Eaton, Kawakita and Lüdde) or relative new ones (Panelli - Ambrózio Filho, Castagnet-Falcão- Leal Neto, Ge Rong-de, Parilák and Dudrová, Gerdemann and Jablonski. Also, for a better understanding of the consolidation process by compressing powder blends and for better prediction of compaction behavior, it's necessary the modeling and simulation of the powder pressing process by computer numerical simulation. In this paper are presented the effect of ceramic particles additions in metallic matrix on the compressibility of composites made by P/M route, taking into account (a) the some of above mentioned powder compression equations and also (b) the compaction behavior modeling through finite element method (FEM) and discrete element modeling (DEM) or combined finite/ discrete element (FE/DE) method.
Over the last few decades, researchers has been focused on the study of processing using different methods of new biocompatible and/or biodegradable materials such as permanent or temporary medical implants in reconstructive surgery. The advantages of obtaining biomedical implants by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) techniques are (i) obtaining the near-net-shaped with complex forms, (ii) making materials with controlled porosity or (iii) making mechanically resistant sintered metallic materials used as reinforcing elements for ceramic/polymeric biocompatible materials. In this first part of the 2-part review, the most used and newest metallic biomaterials obtained by P/M methods are presented, along with their compaction and sintering behavior and the properties of the porous biomaterials studied in correlation with the biomedical domain of application.
The basic purpose of compaction is to obtain a green compact with sufficient strength to withstand further handling operations. The strength of green compact is influenced by the characteristics of the powders (apparent density, particle size and shape, internal pores etc.), the processing parameters (applied force, pressing type, and temperature) and testing conditions (strain rate etc.) Successful powder cold compaction is determined by the densification and structural transformations of powders (metallic powders, ceramic powders and metal-ceramic powder mixtures) during the compaction stages. In this paper, for understanding the factors that determine a required strength of compacted metal-ceramic powder mixtures, we present the densification mechanisms of different mixtures according to densification theories of compaction, the elastic-plastic deformations of mixture powders, the stressstrain relations and the relaxation behavior of compacted metal-ceramic composite parts and the particularities of each of them.
A microfluidic device designated for measurement of fluidic flows with different viscosity, necessary within trapping/realising of cells/particles system has been developed. We use a new concept as Microfluidic Pulse Width Modulation (MPWM) for controlling transport of a single cell/particle. The image processing helped the nano-hydraulic volumes/flow rates measurement, through tracking inovative methods with the purpose to build a flow sensor. The device open an unique opportunitie for single cell study with applications in biomedical devices, tools for biochemistry or analytical systems.