The current epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in Thailand is poorly understood and the reported prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is outdated.
To investigate the etiologies of UGIB and prevalence of H. pylori infection in Thailand, including its association with UGIB.
We retrieved information regarding patients attending the endoscopic unit of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from June 2007 to January 2013. A database search using keywords “upper gastrointestinal bleeding” and “iron deficiency” was used. From 4,454 diagnoses, after exclusion criteria, 3,488 patients (2,042 male (58.5%) and 1,446 female (41.5%); mean age 63.3 ± 15.94 years, range 13–103 years) were included.
The three most common causes of UGIB were peptic ulcer (38.2%), nonulcer-mucosal lesions (23.4%), and esophageal-related causes (20.4%). The 5 year-incidence of H. pylori was 25%–30%. The overall prevalence was 27%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was found to decrease with age from 43.8% at <40 years to 21.7% at >79 years old. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with duodenal and gastroduodenal ulcers. Cirrhosis and nonulcer-mucosal lesions were significantly unrelated to H. pylori infection. Patients with concurrent cirrhosis with peptic ulcer were found to be negative for H. pylori infection.
Peptic ulcer is the leading cause of UGIB in Thailand. However, its incidence is declining. Patients who presented to hospital with UGIB were older, compared with those a decade ago. H. pylori infection plays an important role in UGIB and its incidence was stable during the past 5 years.
Cirrhotic patients are susceptible to drug toxicity, which presents frequently with antituberculosis drug (ATD) treatment. Previous studies of ATD-induced liver injury (ATDILI) in cirrhotics have been limited to patients with early-stage cirrhosis.
To describe characteristics and determine risk factors for ATDILI in cirrhotic patients.
We included 64 cirrhotic patients treated with ATDs between 2006 and 2016 in a tertiary referral university teaching hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. Cirrhosis was diagnosed by radiological features, including small-sized nodular liver and/or caudate lobe hypertrophy or evidence of portal hypertension (collateral vessels, varices, and/or splenomegaly). Clinical information was retrospectively abstracted. Characteristics of patients with ATDILI vs. those without ATDILI were compared.
Six (9.4%) patients developed ATDILI with the median duration from ATD initiation of 14 days (range: 6–66). All the 6 patients who developed ATDILI received 3 hepatotoxic ATDs (isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide) and had Child–Turcotte–Pugh class B cirrhosis. The patients with ATDILI were found to have a higher percentage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection than patients without ATDILI (50% vs. 8.6%; P = 0.02).
Cirrhotic patients, particularly those with underlying HIV infection, are at risk of developing ATDILI. Pyrazinamide should be used cautiously in cirrhotic patients due to the significantly increased risk of ATIDLI. This study supports the current recommendation for the use of ATD in patients with cirrhosis; however, the ATD regimen should be carefully selected, particularly for cirrhotic patients with HIV infection.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) was the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract predominately occurring in the stomach. Although GIST was a rare disease, it was considered to be a life-threatening malignancy.
To explore the current status of gastric GIST in Thai patients.
The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with histologically proven gastric GIST from 2012 to 2016 in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were reviewed.
Of 22 patients, there were 14 (63.6%) females and 8 (36.4%) males with the mean age of 62.6 ± 14.8 years. The average duration before the first presentation was 12 weeks. The initial symptoms were upper gastrointestinal bleeding (50.0%) followed by abdominal pain (31.8%). Tumor mostly located at the proximal part (fundus and cardia) in 20 (90.9%) patients. At the time of the diagnosis, three patients (13.6%) had distant metastasis. Of this group, 77.3% underwent surgical treatment.
Although gastric GIST was an uncommon disease, early diagnosis and prompt treatment could save the lives of many patients.
Drainage of symptomatic walled-off peripancreatic fluid collections (WPFCs) can be achieved by endoscopic, percutaneous, and surgical techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the current trends in management of WPFCs and the outcome of such modalities in Asian population.
In this retrospective analysis, all patients diagnosed with pancreatitis from 2013 to 2016 in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, were analyzed. Relevant clinical data of all patients with peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) was reviewed. Clinical success was defined as improvement in symptoms after drainage.
Of the total 636 patients with pancreatitis, 72 (11.3%) had WPFCs, of which 55 (8.6%) and 17 (2.7%) had pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) and walled-off necrosis (WON), respectively. The commonest etiologies of WPFCs were alcohol (38.9%) and biliary stone (29.2%). Post-procedure and pancreatic tumor related pancreatitis was found in 8.3% and 6.9% patients, respectively. PP was more common in chronic (27.8%) than acute (5.5%) pancreatitis. Of the 72 patients with WPFCs, 31 (43.1%) had local complications. Supportive, endoscopic, percutaneous, and surgical drainage were employed in 58.3%, 27.8%, 8.3%, and 5.6% with success rates being 100%, 100%, 50%, and 100%, respectively. Complications that developed after percutaneous drainage included bleeding at procedure site (n = 1), infection of PFC (n = 1), and pancreatic duct leakage (n = 1).
Over the past few years, endoscopic drainage has become the most common route of drainage of WPFCs followed by percutaneous and surgical routes. The success rate of endoscopic route is better than percutaneous and comparable to surgical modality.
Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common gastrointestinal disease emergency and a cause of morbidity and mortality.
To assess the clinical outcomes and explore predictive factors for mortality of elderly patients with acute UGIB.
During the study period from January 2010 to September 2011, we prospectively enrolled 981 patients presenting with UGIB from 11 hospitals (mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 59.4 ± 14.9 years; range, 17–94 years; including 661 men). Of these 981 patients, 499 (50.9%) were elderly. Basic demographic data and clinical findings, and Rockall scores were collected and calculated.
We studied 499 elderly patients. Their mean age ± SD was 71.63 ± 7.65 years. The 30-day mortality rate was 9% and rebleeding was just 1%. Regression analysis showed a pulse rate >100 beats per min at first visit, red blood in a nasogastric aspiration, comorbidity with coronary artery disease, and creatinine >1.5 mg/dL were independent predictive factors of 30-day mortality.
Peptic ulcer bleeding is a major cause of acute UGBI in the elderly. We recommend patients with predictive factors of mortality, pulse rate >100 beats per min at first visit, red blood in nasogastric aspiration, comorbidity with coronary artery disease, and creatinine >1.5 mg/dL be closely monitored and treated promptly. Reducing mortality from peptic ulcer bleeding should focus on preventing peptic ulcer occurrence as a result of ulcerogenic medications.