Epidemiological studies have shown that infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an influential risk factor for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb), the rapid progression of the initial infection to active tuberculosis (TB), and the reactivation of latent TB infection. MTb infection is also one of the most common opportunistic infections in people with HIV, including AIDS patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy. Given the prevalence of HIV infection, the incidence of TB infection, which had begun to decline, is facing a severe situation. HIV associated with TB exerts an immense burden on the public health-care system, especially in countries with high incidences of HIV infection. Therefore, the global policies for the prevention and control of TB should be revised. Moreover, an increased investment in TB control has to be guaranteed. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the prevention, treatment, and control of HIV and TB co-infection.
Yb3+/Er3+/GZO ceramics have been synthesized with high temperature solid-state method. The phase and structure of the Yb3+/Er3+/GZO ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD pattern that following ions Yb3+, Er3+ and Ga3+ were well doped into the ZnO lattice. Effi cient visible up-conversion (UC) red and green emission were observed under 980 nm excitation. The mechanism of the UC luminescence is investigated on the basis of the UC luminescence emission spectra, the power curve and energy level diagram. The infl uence of doping ions to the intensity ratio of red to green is analyzed and high purity of red light (red/green = 29.9) is fi nally obtained.
Wen-mao Ding, Lan Li, Rui-ying Wang and Zhu-ling Cao
Background: Nicotine can affect the development of Atherosclerosis (AS). Monocytes/macrophages are the important cells hi the AS lesions.
Objective: We studied the mechanisms of smoking on AS. The effects of nicotine on macrophage were investigated hi this study.
Methods: Different concentration of nicotine (6 × 10-9~-5 mol/L), different incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 horn s) and 7 β-hydroxycholesterol (50 μg ml) were schemed in this study. After exposure of macrophage to those different conditions, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and tumor necrosis factor-⃞ (TNF-α) content in the supernatant were assayed.
Results: Nicotine (6 × 10-9mol/L~-6×10-5mol/L) treatment resulted in a marked reduction of LDH in the supernatant (131,0±9.6 U/L. 129.7±6.2 U/L, 129.4±5.3 U/L, 134.2±8.4 U/L, and 138.3+9.7 U/L vs. 151.3+8.1 U/L, p <0.05 respectively, q-test). The same change trend was seen when co-treated with 7β-hydroxycholestrol and nicotine (135.7±7.6U/L, 135.6±6.6U/L, 136.1±6.7 U/L, 142.9±4.5 U/L, and 146.4±4.4 U/L vs. 152.4⃞6.2U/L, P<0.05 respectively, q-test). The peak effects occurred at the nicotine concentration of 6 × 10-7mol/L and the first 18-hours incubation. Nicotine (6 ×10-9mol/L~6 × 10-6mol L) treatment result in the increase of TNF-α in the supernatant (0.28±0.06 ng/mL, 0.32±0.05 ng/mL, 0.40±0.07 ng/mL. and 0.30±0.08 ng/mL vs. 0.17±0.05 ng/mL, p <0.05 respectively, q-test). Nicotine (6 × 10-5mol/L) treatment have no significant hicrease compared to the control group (0.21±0.08 ng/mL vs. 0.17+0.05 ng/mL, p >0.05, q-test). The peak effects occurred at the nicothie concentration of 6 × 10-7mol/L.
Conclusions: Nicotine can produce the beneficial effect on macrophage. Nicotine treatment can activate macrophage to produce TNF-α. Thus, nicotine can be a mechanism on the development of atherosclerosis.
The research object of this paper is the 66 students of Groundwater science and engineering in Heibei GEO University. Their 11 courses’ exam scores in grade 3 were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that the course system is basically reasonable, because most of the score of the curriculums in PC1 are consistent with each other. What’s more, the results show that the professional basic courses laid a good foundation for the development of other courses. At the same time, the weakness of the curriculums has been reflected during the study. The content of the professional practice may need to be adjusted because it failed to transform the theoretical knowledge to practical application.
Modified PVC (M-PVC) material with suppressed migration and low glass transition temperature was prepared via click reaction of a monooctyl phthalate derivative. Chemical structure and composition of M-PVC were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and element analysis. Thermal stability, glass transition temperature and migration stability of M-PVC were studied with TGA, DSC and migration tests, respectively. The study showed that M-PVC exhibited poor thermal stability, and low glass transition temperature of 66.0°C. No migration was found in distilled water, 10% (v/v) ethanol, 30% (w/v)acetic acid and petroleum ether. The PVC material is expected to preparing PVC products in the areas with high migration resistance requirement.
Haiyun Xu, Chao Wang, Kun Dong, Rui Luo, Zenghui Yue and Hongshen Pang
This study aims at identifying potential industry-university-research collaboration (IURC) partners effectively and analyzes the conditions and dynamics in the IURC process based on innovation chain theory.
The method utilizes multisource data, combining bibliometric and econometrics analyses to capture the core network of the existing collaboration networks and institution competitiveness in the innovation chain. Furthermore, a new identification method is constructed that takes into account the law of scientific research cooperation and economic factors.
Empirical analysis of the genetic engineering vaccine field shows that through the distribution characteristics of creative technologies from different institutions, the analysis based on the innovation chain can identify the more complementary capacities among organizations.
In this study, the overall approach is shaped by the theoretical concept of an innovation chain, a linear innovation model with specific types or stages of innovation activities in each phase of the chain, and may, thus, overlook important feedback mechanisms in the innovation process.
Industry-university-research institution collaborations are extremely important in promoting the dissemination of innovative knowledge, enhancing the quality of innovation products, and facilitating the transformation of scientific achievements.
Compared to previous studies, this study emulates the real conditions of IURC. Thus, the rule of technological innovation can be better revealed, the potential partners of IURC can be identified more readily, and the conclusion has more value.
This study aimed to explore the 100-year changes in regulations for the Florence Nightingale Medal.
We used the announcements of the Florence Nightingale Medal awards as the research object to analyze – via historical and inductive methods – the regulations for receiving the Florence Nightingale Medal.
In the award years, the greatest number of winners per award year was 71 and the lowest was 12. The medal was initially exclusively awarded to living people but evolved to include both living and deceased people. The recipients were balanced among all countries. The gender of the winners showed a changing trend from being limited to only females to including both males and females. There was also a shift from emphasis on only dedication of the recipient to equal emphasis on both dedication and innovation.
The selection criteria for recipients of the Florence Nightingale Medal evolved from consideration of those showing only dedication to equal consideration of both dedication and innovation.
With the aim of enabling the easy spinning of polysulfonamide (PSA) fibers, FFL-13 oil was successfully prepared. Specific resistance, the coefficient of friction, carding machine, electrostatic, cohesion, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analyses were conducted in this study. Results showed that increase in oil concentration, ambient temperature, and humidity induces decrease in PSA fiber-specific resistance and gradual increase in the antistatic property. Relatively high oil concentration and ambient humidity may cause fibers to become sticky and show increased roller winding. As oil concentration increased, fiber cohesion increased and fiber gliding properties showed an initial increase and subsequent decrease. The ideal oil concentration was determined to be 0.6%. This study proves that STM may effectively be used to determine the optimal oil concentration.
S. Zheng, Guohao Wu, Suoliang Zhang, Jie Su, Lei Liu, Fang Wang, Rui Zhao and Xiaobing Yan
The electronic structures of Hg-doped anatase TiO2 with different O vacancy concentrations were calculated using the first-principles based on the density functional theory. The calculated results show that the forbidden band widths of Hgdoped anatase TiO2 widened along with the increase of O vacancy concentration, which is responsible for the blue shift in the absorption edges. It can be deduced from the present study that the Hg-doped TiO2 samples prepared in the experimental research contain a certain quantity of O vacancies.