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Rudolf Midriak

Spustnuté pôdy nad hornou hranicou lesa Slovenska

Spustnuté pôdy sa môžu vyskytnúť všade tam, kde človek odstránil, alebo oslabil pôdoochranne účinnú vegetačnú pokrývku a umožnil nastúpiť eróznym procesom. Takto vznikli aj nad hornou hranicou lesa po jej znížení a odstránení kosodrevinových porastov za účelom pasenia. Ich vznik sa viaže predovšetkým na odlesnenú hornú časť supramontánneho stupňa a na subalpínsky stupeň, v menšom rozsahu aj na alpínsky stupeň. Ide o tieto procesy, ktoré majú vplyv na vznik aj ďalší vývoj spustnutých pôd: vodné, gravitačné, eolické, nivačné, kryogénne, organogénne a antropogénne procesy.

Mapovateľnými formami deštrukcie 1 : 10 000 je postihnuté územie na rozlohe 3 972 ha (8,1 %). Podľa vyhodnotenia v mierke 1 : 100 až 1 : 1 000 ide o zvýšenie o ďalších 3 207 ha. Ak teda zoberieme do úvahy takto zvýšenú výmeru deštruovaných spustnutých pôd (asi 7 180 ha), potom ich rozloha z celkovej výmery pôdnej pokrývky nad hranicou lesa predstavuje na Slovensku až 24 %! Prevažná časť územia nad hranicou lesa (na 78 % plochy) je ohrozená veľmi silnou intenzitou potenciálnej erózie (5 až 15 mm vrstvy zeminy za rok) alebo silnou intenzitou (1,5 až 5 mm za rok). V porovnaní s priemernými potenciálnymi eróznymi stratami nad hranicou lesa v jednotlivých pohoriach (celkový priemer je 8,64 mm.r-1) reálny priemerný odnos pôdy je 0,27 mm za rok, ktorý kolíše z povrchu spustnutých pôd najčastejšie od 0,4 do 0,5 mm.r-1, ale na menších plochách od 2 do 30 mm za rok!

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Ľubica Zaušková, Rudolf Midriak and Vladimír Šebeň

The contribution brings detail characteristics of the so-called white areas. It aims to describe white areas on the basis of selected attributes of agricultural land (such as typological-productive categories of agricultural land, potential level of cost-effectivness at crops growing, primary, secondary and other agricultural soil funds) and to compare these results with the results of procedures applied in the APVV project Waste lands and landscape abandoning in Slovakia as well as to highlight discrepancies in delimitation of both forest and agricultural soil fund. Nearly 80% of the Slovak white areas is situated on potential uneconomic agricultural soils, most of white areas (70%) is situated on the other agricultural soil fund and 25% of forests on non-forest land are not registered in the agricultural soil fund.

Open access

Jozef Konôpka, Rudolf Midriak and Bohdan Konôpka

Abstract

The contribution is published on the occasion of the 120th anniversary of the establishment of a forestry research organisation in Slovakia and the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic. We present important forestry research works, which were written by former (no longer alive) workers of the Forest Research Institute (FRI) in Zvolen in the second half of 20th century. The works (30 works in total) were divided into seven scientific areas: biology and silviculture (five works), forest protection (four works), forest management (five works), forestry mechanisation and harvest-production technologies (four works), forestry economics (five works), hunting (three works), natural environment (four works). First, summary information on selected works in a specific area was presented. Then, individual works from the specific scientific areas were characterised in more detail. Their value for the development of science and research as well as for the practical forestry was presented. Moreover, their importance for the present time was addressed. The paper presents only a very limited selection of a great number of works by FRI workers published in the second half of 20th century. The table with the information on the periods, when the individual significant researchers worked at FRI, is presented at the end of the paper.