Bromo Moesiacae-Stipetum Epilosae - a New Association from the Relict Mountain Steppe Vegetation in South-Western Bulgaria
A syntaxonomical analysis of the dry grasslands (Festuco-Brometea) in Bosnek karst region, Mt Vitosha (SW Bulgaria) has been carried out. These grasslands are part of the intrazonal vegetation distributed within the belts of xerophilous oak and mesophilous beech forest in the south-western foothills of the mountain. The bedrock is carbonate, the soils are dry and shallow, climate - moderate continental. This vegetation grows mostly on steep slopes, with southern and south-western exposition. Apart from the typical for Festuco-Brometea calcicoles, the studied vegetation is characterized by many endemic (regional and local) species and at the same time includes a lot of Mediterranean species. As a result of the analysis, a new association, Bromo moesiacae-Stipetum epilosae ass. nova, has been established that belongs to the alliance Saturejon montanae. A comparison with related syntaxa from other karst mountains from SW Bulgaria and E Serbia is made, and some conclusions about the origin of the steppe vegetation in that region are drawn.
Saxifrago Ferdinandi-Coburgi-Seslerietum Actarovii - A New Association from the Subalpine Belt of the Slavianka (Orvilos) MTS. (Bulgaria)
The paper discusses the phytosociological and syntaxonomical position of the dry subalpine grasslands in the Slavianka (Alibutoush, Orvilos) Mts. (South-Western Bulgaria, Northern Greece). A new association Saxifrago ferdinandi-coburgi-Seslerietum actarovii ass. nova has been established as a result of the phytosociological study. It is considered as an endemic vegetation unit from the calcareous subalpine terrains in the Central Balkan Peninsula high mountains (Southwestern Bulgaria, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Northern Greece). The new syntaxon belongs to the alliance Edrajantho-Seslerion Horvat 1949. A comparison with related syntaxa from other calcareous mountains from Northern Greece and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is discussed.
The study presents new data on the habitat dominated by the species complex of Genista lydia/G. rumelica in Bulgaria. It is based on 129 phytocoenological relevés and provides information on the chorology, ecology and floristic structure of these communities. This habitat type occupies substrates composed by different volcanic rocks. The floristic structure is very rich in species. The phytogeographical relationships with the East Mediterranean region are considerable, which is proved by the high occurrence of floristic elements with Mediterranean or sub-Mediterranean origin. The plant life-forms analysis demonstrates that the therophytes, geophytes and chamephytes prevail in their floristic structure, which is also typical for the shrub communities in this region. During the field study this vegetation type has been mapped and its total area of occupancy has been calculated. For a first time it is proposed this habitat to be divided into three habitat sub-types due to the established differences in the environmental factors. Some recommendations have been proposed on the conservation management and also complements on the habitat‘s descriptions in EUNIS habitat classification.
Rossen Tzonev, Tatiana Lysenko, Chavdar Gusev and Petar Zhelev
The Halophytic Vegetation in South-East Bulgaria and Along the Black Sea Coast
The paper presents results of a syntaxonomic analysis of the herbaceous phytocoenoses on the salt steppes, meadows and marshes in Southeastern Bulgaria, and along the Southern Black Sea Coast. The halophytic vegetation is distributed mostly in the Tundzha Lowland and the large salt lakes along the Black Sea Coast, where the saline soils occupy large territories. Most syntaxa identified in the paper are well-known and wide-spread in Central and Eastern Europe (Salicornietum prostratae, Suaedetum maritimae, Juncetum maritimae etc.), but there are also some specific vegetation types, which are presented by endemic associations as Petrosimonio brachiatae-Puccinellietum convolutae, Bupleuro tenuissimae-Camphorosmetum monspeliacae. The most widespread one is Diantho pallidiflori-Puccinellietum convolutae. It demonstrates a big variation in the appearance and the dominant structure of the described phytocoenoses. The comparision of the Bulgarian halophytic vegetation with other places in Europe shows its similarities with these vegetation types distributed in the Eastern Mediterranean and Central and Eastern Europe.
Rossen Tzonev, Marius Dimitrov, Chavdar Gussev, Vladimir Vulchev and Ivailo Nikolov
New approach for the classification of the Black Pine forest communities in Bulgaria was made in the paper. The analysis of forest pytocoenoses from Vlahina, East and West Rhodopi and Balkan Range Mountains confirmed their separation into two classes – Quercetea pubescentis (low-altitudinal) and Erico-Pinetea (high-altitudinal). The second class is represented from one polymorphic association Seslerio latifoliae-Pinetum nigrae whereas the other group is represented from two new associations. The association Junipero deltoidi-Pineteum pallasianae is more related to the surrounding thermophilous oak forests as well as the association Lathyro laxiflori-Pinetum pallasianae is more similar to the hornbeam and beech forests.