The surveys of terrestrial gamma dose rate, radon concentration indoor and in water and specific activity of radionuclides of soil were carried out in 14 villages and a town in Xiangshan uranium deposit and surrounding area, Jiangxi province, Eastern China, in 2017-2018, using a scintillator dosemeter, an ionization chamber and a high-purity germanium gamma spectrometer to study radiation status in these places after remediation. A radioactive hot spot was discovered in a village near the mining office, where specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs of soil was as high as 1433 ± 76 Bq/kg, 1210 ± 62 Bq/kg, 236 ± 13 Bq/kg and 17 ± 1.1 Bq/kg, respectively. The dose rate on a waste rock heap was about 2423 nGy/h. Approximately 50% of the houses in a village near the uranium mining site had radon concentrations that exceeded 160 Bq/m3. There was a significant positive correlation between indoor radon concentration and outdoor gamma dose rate (R2 = 0.7876). The abnormal radon concentration was observed in a rising spring sample providing residents with tap water up to 127.1 Bq/l. Four tap water samples and three of five well water samples exceeded the limit of radon concentration of drinking water in China (11.1 Bq/l). The mean annual effective doses from gamma dose rate data were 0.86 mSv/y and 1.13 mSv/y for indoor radon. The study shows that there are some radioactively contaminated places surrounding the Xiangshan uranium mine. The local outdoor dose rate averages may be used to estimate local indoor radon concentrations.
This paper aims to clarify the concept of occupational burnout (OB) as well as develop appropriate methods to relieve or prevent OB in the nursing profession.
Walker and Avant’s eight-step approach of concept analysis was applied.
OB was defined as a chronic form of work-related stress. Accurately, it was characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization/cynicism, and reduced personal accomplishment/inefficacy. Antecedents of burnout included (a) demographic characteristics; (b) chronic exposure to work-related stressors; (c) quantitative and qualitative job demands; (d) lack of job resources; and (e) personality traits. Consequences involved (a) individual’s unfavorable quality of life; (b) negative impact on the organization; and (c) poor services quality. Although the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is perceived as an ideal tool to measure burnout and hence, it is used worldwide, whether this instrument fits to measure this concept for nurses has still not yet been verified and thus further research is needed.
By proposing a comprehensive definition of the concept, this analysis contributes to recognition of the process of OB of nurses. All nurses are vulnerable to OB. Hence, burnout in nursing needs to be recognized as a critical factor in the delivery of safe patient care. It proposes that the prevention of OB would be achieved through team communication training, mindfulness group, education, etc.
Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. It is recognized in overt hypothyroidism while its existence in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is not well established. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was increased oxidation of lipids and proteins in SCH, and examine their association with lipids and thyroid hormones.
Methods: Male adults (35-59 years) with SCH (n=467) and euthyroid controls (n=190) were studied. Anthropometric measurements, plasma lipids, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and dityrosine concentrations were measured.
Results: Plasma concentrations of MDA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in SCH (8.11±1.39 nmol/mL) compared with euthyroid controls (7.34±1.31 nmol/mL) while AOPP, dityrosine and T-AOC levels were not different. MDA was not associated with TSH (β=-0.019, P=0.759), FT4 (β=-0.062, P=0.323) and FT3 (β=-0.018, P=0.780) in SCH while levels increased with elevated total cholesterol (β=0.229, P=0.001), LDL (β=0.203, P=0.009) and triglycerides (β=0.159, P=0.036) after adjustment for ageand body mass index. T-AOC reduced (β=-0.327, P=0.030) with increased MDA in euthyroid controls and not in SCH (β=-0.068, P=0.349), while levels increased with elevated triglycerides in both groups.
Conclusion: Oxidative stress was increased in subclinical hypothyroidism as evidenced by the elevated lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, while protein oxidation was absent. Thus, reduction of oxidative stress may be beneficial in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism