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  • Author: Rong Shen x
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Open access

Mai-Lan Liu, Shen Xie, Si-An Pan, Mi Liu and Xiao-Rong Chang

Abstract

Objective: To sort out and analyze on acupuncture-moxibustion (AM) based clinical trials literature for hyperlipidemia (HLP) so that to find out the characteristics of AM, by which the more rational strategy of AM for HLP could be made.

Methods: We searched clinical trial paper on hyperlipidemia by AM in the main English and Chinese databases, included those met the eligibility, and employed the metrologic method to analyze and summarize the AM manipulation features.

Results: (1) A total of 124 articles were included with 128 times of AM methods in this study. (2) AM methods were broadly distributed: 29 articles on mild moxibustion, 24 on manual acupuncture, 21 on electro-acupuncture, 6 on magnetic needle, 6 on herbal pastry-insulated moxibustion (HPIM), 4 on warming needle moxibustion (WNM), 3 on acupoint injection, 2 on laser exposure, 1 on intradermal imbedding needle, and 1 on needle-knife. (3) characteristics of AM: manual acupuncture focuses on the manipulation of reinforcement or reduction by inserting/lifting or twisting in different directions, based on pathopattern differentiation (deficiency or repletion). Electro-acupuncture, which is supposed to have no difference on reinforcement/reduction, mostly choose dilatational wave at a frequency between 2~100Hz, with around 30minutes needle-retainment and 30 sessions for the whole treatment; mild moxibustion takes around 10 minutes for each session on each acupoint; HPIM usually takes 3 to 5 cones for each session on each acupoint; WNM usually takes 30 minutes for each session, by being administered every day or every other day, for total 30 session.

Conclusion: Currently the major used AM methods for HLP are manual acupuncture, electro-acupuncture and mild moxibustion. By turns they pay more attention on reinforcement/reduction, wave form and frequency, and dosage of moxibustion, respectively.

Open access

Shen-rong Hu, Yong-tao Huai, Chuan-ying Pan, Chu-zhao Lei, Hong Chen and Xian-yong Lan

Abstract

Objective To investigate the 23 bp and 12 bp insertion/deletion (indel) mutations within the bovine prion protein (PRNP) gene in Chinese dairy cows, and to detect the associations of two indel mutations with BSE susceptibility and milk performance.

Methods Based on bovine PRNP gene sequence, two pairs of primers for testing the 23 bp and 12 bp indel mutations were designed. The PCR amplification and agarose electrophoresis were carried out to distinguish the different genotypes within the mutations. Moreover, based on previous data from other cattle breeds and present genotypic and allelic frequencies of two indels mutations in this study, the corrections between the two indel mutations and BSE susceptibility were tested, as well as the relationships between the mutations and milk performance traits were analyzed in this study based on the statistical analyses.

Results In the analyzed Chinese Holstein population, the frequencies of two “del” alleles in 23 bp and 12 bp indel muations were more frequent. The frequency of haplotype of 23del-12del was higher than those of 23del- 12ins and 23ins-12del. From the estimated r2 and D’ values, two indel polymorphisms were linked strongly in the Holstein population (D’ = 57.5%, r2 = 0.257). Compared with the BSE-affected cattle populations from the reported data, the significant differences of genotypic and allelic frequencies were found among present Holstein and some BSE-affected populations (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Similarly, there were significant frequency distribution differences of genotypes and alleles among Chinese Holstein and several previous reported healthy dairy cattle (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Moreover, association of genotype and combined genotypes of two indel polymorphisms with milk performance and resistant mastitis traits were analyzed in Holstein population, but no significant differences were found (P > 0.05).

Conclusions These observations revealed that the influence of two indel mutations within the bovine PRNP gene on BSE depended on the breed and they did not affect the milk production traits, which layed the foundation for future selection of resistant animals, and for improving health conditions for dairy breeding against BSE in China.

Open access

Jing Shen, Chao Wang, Jia-Li Zhang, Zhao Liu, Mi Liu, Jie Yan, Xiao-Rong Chang and li-Na Guo

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning at Nei Guan point (PC6) on the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) of rabbits with myocardial ischemia-reperrfusion injury, and its underlying mechanism that protects myocardium from injury.

Methods: 18 New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to pseudo-operation, model and EA groups, 6 in each group. Setting up models by ligation of coronary artery and electrically stimulating the rabbits in EA group 20 min per day in 5 days before modeling. Testing the activity of serum SOD with the method of actinochemistry, testing changes of mitochondrial transmembrane potential of myocardial cells with the method of synchronous spectrometry, using spectrophotometry to test the changes of the absorption of mitochondria at the spectrum of 520nm to check the opening of MPTP, and testing the apotosis of cells by means of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL).

Results: Compared with model groups, the SOD activity of myocardial cells was significantly enhanced, and the apotosis index (AI) was reduced(P<0.01),mitochondrial transmembrane potential was significantly increased (P<0.05),absorption of mitochondria was significantly decreased(P<0.01).

Conclusion: EA can remarkably improve myocardial ischemia - reperfusion injury, and protect myocardium.

Open access

Maureen Jepkorir Cheserek, Gui-Rong Wu, Arsene Ntazinda, Yong-Hui Shi, Li-Ye Shen and Guo-Wei Le

Summary

Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. It is recognized in overt hypothyroidism while its existence in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is not well established. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was increased oxidation of lipids and proteins in SCH, and examine their association with lipids and thyroid hormones.

Methods: Male adults (35-59 years) with SCH (n=467) and euthyroid controls (n=190) were studied. Anthropometric measurements, plasma lipids, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and dityrosine concentrations were measured.

Results: Plasma concentrations of MDA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in SCH (8.11±1.39 nmol/mL) compared with euthyroid controls (7.34±1.31 nmol/mL) while AOPP, dityrosine and T-AOC levels were not different. MDA was not associated with TSH (β=-0.019, P=0.759), FT4 (β=-0.062, P=0.323) and FT3 (β=-0.018, P=0.780) in SCH while levels increased with elevated total cholesterol (β=0.229, P=0.001), LDL (β=0.203, P=0.009) and triglycerides (β=0.159, P=0.036) after adjustment for ageand body mass index. T-AOC reduced (β=-0.327, P=0.030) with increased MDA in euthyroid controls and not in SCH (β=-0.068, P=0.349), while levels increased with elevated triglycerides in both groups.

Conclusion: Oxidative stress was increased in subclinical hypothyroidism as evidenced by the elevated lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, while protein oxidation was absent. Thus, reduction of oxidative stress may be beneficial in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism