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Tomasz Borecki, Dariusz Pieniak, Edward Stępień and Roman Wójcik


Scheduling and regulation of the forest use are of much importance in forest management. Decisions regarding the manner, timing, and intensity of tree felling result in long-term effects, as these affect the species and age structure of forests, along with the direction and dynamics of changes in forest resources. Above all, serious doubts concern the way of determining and accounting for the prescribed forest utilization, and in particular, the possibilities of the pre-final cuttings. In recent times, the precise determination of the pre-final cuttings by volume has been given up. According to the law, the area of pre-final cuttings is now obligatory taken into account. Consequently, it is not possible to determine the total volume limiting the amount of timber to be harvested, thus, there is decreased the value of the forest management plan as the document approved by the minister responsible for forestry as well as the basis for forest management. For practical reasons, the specified pre-final cuttings by volume are considered as indicative.

Connecting the planned pre-final cutting volume with the expected volume increment of the stand has not been relinquished. In the present paper, the authors called attention to a necessity for further improvement of the medium-term planning of pre-final cutting volume. A need to change the definition of the incidental cutting was emphasized. As said by the authors, the term “incidental cutting” should denote harvesting wood from diseased and dying or dead trees, along with eliminating the effects of tree damage caused by fortuitous events. Accordingly, the incidental cuttings that are inherently unpredictable, should not be directly attributed to pre-final cutting products. Keeping in mind the incidental cuttings, the authors proposed the method of reckoning the forest use, which would allow for correct accounting with regard to the prescribed pre-final cuttings.

Open access

Tomasz Borecki, Bogdan Brzeziecki, Edward Stępień and Roman Wójcik


The demand for wide range and precise information on forests promotes continuous development of forest inventory methods, owing to the fact that compilation of reliable data is prerequisite not only for improving forest management schedules but also planning land use and natural environment management. In the reality of contemporary forestry, a requirement to improve forest inventory methods stems from obligation to acquire information on broadly understood issues of forestry as well as the protection of nature and environment.

The paper points out to the essential steps, as said by the authors, on the way to the improvement of now used forest inventory methods and calls attention to remote sensing technologies such as ortophotomaps and aerial lidar data.

The revisions proposed concern gathering information on: site conditions, species diversity, forest stock range as well as sample size and work scope on sampling areas. At the same time, in view of surveying the dynamics of forest change, there is recommended the use of permanent observation plots, especially in mountainous forests.

Open access

Joanna Małaczewska, Edyta Kaczorek-Łukowska, Monika Szymańska-Czerwińska, Wojciech Rękawek, Roman Wójcik, Krzysztof Niemczuk and Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki



Coxiella (C.) burnetii, the aetiological agent of Q fever, is able to modulate the macrophage/T-lymphocyte axis in an infected organism and impair synthesis of monokines and lymphokines.

Material and Methods

The purpose of this research was to determine the levels of the cytokines that play a key role in the response to C. burnetii antigens (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α) in the serum of animals originating from an infected herd prior to vaccination (day 0) and at 1, 7, and 21 days afterwards.


The vaccination of animals did not affect the production of IL-6, IL-1β, or IL-2. The serum levels of these cytokines were too low to measure in most of the samples. The initial levels of TNFα, IFNγ, and IL-10 were higher in seropositive than in seronegative animals, although significant differences between seropositive shedders and seropositive nonshedders appeared only in the levels of IFNγ and IL-10. Additionally, the course of the post-vaccination response concerning these two cytokines was different among seronegative nonshedders, seropositive nonshedders, and seropositive shedders.


It seems that analysis of the IFNγ and IL-10 concentrations in animal blood serum may have some practical value in an assessment of the health status of seropositive animals and post-vaccination response.