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Krzysztof Kostro, Katarzyna Dudek, Urszula Lisiecka, Barbara Majer-Dziedzic, Roman Aleksiewicz and Krzysztof Lutnicki

Abstract

The clinical form of natural zearalenone intoxication was observed in sheep that were kept indoors and fed a constant diet of feed concentrates containing high concentrations of zearalenone and its metabolite α-zearalenol. The clinical form of the disease was not noted in the control group, consisting of sheep that were kept on a pasture from spring to late autumn; only in the winter they were fed wheat pellets, in which the zearalenone concentration was determined to be the lowest among all used feed concentrates. During the course of natural zearalenone intoxication, metabolism of arachidonic acid increased, mainly due to enzymes of the cyclooxygenase group, which are responsible for the generation of prostaglandin F2α and thromboxane B2, and an increase in their concentration. Increased production of F2α and B2 was closely correlated with the serum level of SAA, an indicator of the intensity of the inflammatory reaction. This indicates that both compounds participated in the development of inflammatory reactions in the terminal end of the digestive tract that accompanied zearalenone intoxication in sheep. The imbalances noted between the eicosanoid classes investigated in this study were fundamentally responsible for the development of clinical symptoms in sick sheep that showed symptoms of partial or total prolapse of the anus and rectum and prolapse of the large intestine, which were the direct cause of the animals death.

Open access

Roman Aleksiewicz, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Renata Komsta and Krzysztof Kostro

Abstract

Radiographic examination of the distal radius and ulna of dogs showed changes in metaphyseal areas of both bones characteristic of hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD). The serum of the patients showed increased activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and elevated concentrations of Ca and P. Oral application of vitamin C and injection of sodium salt of hyaluronic acid in the bolus caused a reduction in swelling, disappearance of pain symptoms around the joints, and increased appetite. Radiographic examinations performed on the 60th d of treatment revealed the withdrawal of the changes characteristic for HOD. The chosen biochemical parameters tested during the treatment showed a decrease in comparison to the values before treatment, namely: ALKP by 27.7%, Ca by 22.2%, P by 12.3%, and Mg by 2.4%. Clinical condition of the animals was defined as good or very good. The use of hyaluronic acid and vitamin C in the treatment of HOD in the first stage of the disease proved to be highly successful, resulting in the inhibition of the disease course.

Open access

Roman Aleksiewicz, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Marta Likus and Łukasz Gątkiewicz

Abstract

Introduction: The study aimed to observe TNF-α serum concentration as well as changes in respiration rate, body temperature, and pulse rate in burn victims during 84 h post burn.

Material and Methods: A total of 30 healthy pigs were divided into two groups: A, the test group and N, the control group. The experimental group suffered burns to 30% of the body surface, and after infliction of the burns both groups were closely monitored.

Results: The biggest increase in TNF-α serum concentration in the test subjects occurred around the 6th h of the study, and the second biggest increase took place between 12th and 36th h. In the 36th h, TNF-α was 2.5 times more concentrated in serum in the test group than in the control group. In the test group, the biggest increase in respiration rate occurred up to the 6th h post burn, on average up to 29/min. In the 12th h post burn, the mean pulse rate in the test group was 133/min and dropped to the lowest value in the 72nd h of the experiment. A gradual increase in body temperature up to 41.72°C was observed up to the 30th h post burn and decreased to a significant value of 40.74°C by the 84th h of the study.

Conclusion: In a period of a pronounced rise in TNF-α serum concentration, this parameter, pulse rate, and respiration rate are highly correlated and are also influenced by multiple inflammation forming factors.

Open access

Roman Aleksiewicz, Krzysztof Kostro, Marek Kostrzewski, Beata Lisiecka, Marcin Bojarski and Paweł Adam Mucha

Abstract

The aim of the study was the evaluation of changes in the percentage profile of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T lymphocytes, and their predictive value with respect to the course of experimental skin burns and early necrectomy in pigs. Thirty Large White Landrace pigs of both genders, weighing 50 kg (±2 kg), were used. Burns to their skin were performed with the use of a computer-controlled heating plate, applied to the animal’s body and heated to 2000°C, using 2.5 kg pressure for 10 s. It produced a burn of 30% (±2%) of body surface with a range of damage between II b° and III°. In animals of each experimental group fascial necrectomy was performed, according to the testing module. Blood from experimental and non-treated control animals was collected from the external jugular vein before the beginning of the experiment (hour 0) and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, 132, 144, 156, 168, and 180 h of the experiment. An immune response profile was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis of the level and expression dynamics of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ particles on the surface of T lymphocytes. The study demonstrated that experimentally-induced burns in pigs caused cell-mediated immune response reflected in the changes in the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T lymphocytes, and that early necrectomy in burnt pigs acted in a protective manner for the organism, based on the immunological index values. The study also proved that the dynamics of cell-mediated immunological response intensification determined on the basis of the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T lymphocytes is conditioned by the size of the burnt surface and the time of necrectomy procedure.