Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of duplex Doppler to objectify swine renal arterial flow in physiological conditions. The pig kidney was selected for its morphological similarities to the human and for the results therefore offering data to wider research. Material and Methods: Six White Large x Landrace sows, of 48.5–53 kg b.w. were used. Vascular flow parameters were acquired with a convex probe USG device with a duplex Doppler function using pulsed waves (frequency range of 5–7.5 MHz). Segmental kidney arterial flow was measured. Results: The RI values were within the 0.57 (min) to 0.6 (max) range, ̄xRI was 0.58 (±0.014), and the SD2 value was 0.0002. The PI index values ranged from 1.21 (min) to 1.3 (max), and ̄xRI was 1.24 (±0.035). The value of SD2 was 0.00123. In the S/D index, the results fell between 2.2 (min) and 2.49 (max), with ̄xS/D of 2.29 (±0.117). The value of variance SD2 was 0.0139. A double analysis of correlation between indices showed this to be almost certain and highly positive as confirmed by high correlation coefficients: r RI & PI 0.857, rhoRI & PI 0.739, rRI & S/D 0.930, rhoRI & S/D 0.941, rPI & S/D 0.913, and rhoPI & S/D 0.754. The segmental kidney arterial flow spectrum evinced falls in PSV and PSV/LDV ratio, also noticed in the filling of the spectral window, comparing the renal to an interlobar artery. Conclusion: Swine were selected because of renal anatomical and haemodynamic similarity to humans. The most relevant values and indices approximated those in humans. The study anaesthetic protocol had a minor influence on the average RI, PI, and S/D indices.
The study aimed to observe TNF-α serum concentration as well as changes in respiration rate, body temperature, and pulse rate in burn victims during 84 h post burn.
Material and Methods
A total of 30 healthy pigs were divided into two groups: A, the test group and N, the control group. The experimental group suffered burns to 30% of the body surface, and after infliction of the burns both groups were closely monitored.
The biggest increase in TNF-α serum concentration in the test subjects occurred around the 6th h of the study, and the second biggest increase took place between 12th and 36th h. In the 36th h, TNF-α was 2.5 times more concentrated in serum in the test group than in the control group. In the test group, the biggest increase in respiration rate occurred up to the 6th h post burn, on average up to 29/min. In the 12th h post burn, the mean pulse rate in the test group was 133/min and dropped to the lowest value in the 72nd h of the experiment. A gradual increase in body temperature up to 41.72°C was observed up to the 30th h post burn and decreased to a significant value of 40.74°C by the 84th h of the study.
In a period of a pronounced rise in TNF-α serum concentration, this parameter, pulse rate, and respiration rate are highly correlated and are also influenced by multiple inflammation forming factors.
The clinical form of natural zearalenone intoxication was observed in sheep that were kept indoors and fed a constant diet of feed concentrates containing high concentrations of zearalenone and its metabolite α-zearalenol. The clinical form of the disease was not noted in the control group, consisting of sheep that were kept on a pasture from spring to late autumn; only in the winter they were fed wheat pellets, in which the zearalenone concentration was determined to be the lowest among all used feed concentrates. During the course of natural zearalenone intoxication, metabolism of arachidonic acid increased, mainly due to enzymes of the cyclooxygenase group, which are responsible for the generation of prostaglandin F2α and thromboxane B2, and an increase in their concentration. Increased production of F2α and B2 was closely correlated with the serum level of SAA, an indicator of the intensity of the inflammatory reaction. This indicates that both compounds participated in the development of inflammatory reactions in the terminal end of the digestive tract that accompanied zearalenone intoxication in sheep. The imbalances noted between the eicosanoid classes investigated in this study were fundamentally responsible for the development of clinical symptoms in sick sheep that showed symptoms of partial or total prolapse of the anus and rectum and prolapse of the large intestine, which were the direct cause of the animals death.
Radiographic examination of the distal radius and ulna of dogs showed changes in metaphyseal areas of both bones characteristic of hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD). The serum of the patients showed increased activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and elevated concentrations of Ca and P. Oral application of vitamin C and injection of sodium salt of hyaluronic acid in the bolus caused a reduction in swelling, disappearance of pain symptoms around the joints, and increased appetite. Radiographic examinations performed on the 60th d of treatment revealed the withdrawal of the changes characteristic for HOD. The chosen biochemical parameters tested during the treatment showed a decrease in comparison to the values before treatment, namely: ALKP by 27.7%, Ca by 22.2%, P by 12.3%, and Mg by 2.4%. Clinical condition of the animals was defined as good or very good. The use of hyaluronic acid and vitamin C in the treatment of HOD in the first stage of the disease proved to be highly successful, resulting in the inhibition of the disease course.
The aim of the study was the evaluation of changes in the percentage profile of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T lymphocytes, and their predictive value with respect to the course of experimental skin burns and early necrectomy in pigs. Thirty Large White Landrace pigs of both genders, weighing 50 kg (±2 kg), were used. Burns to their skin were performed with the use of a computer-controlled heating plate, applied to the animal’s body and heated to 2000°C, using 2.5 kg pressure for 10 s. It produced a burn of 30% (±2%) of body surface with a range of damage between II b° and III°. In animals of each experimental group fascial necrectomy was performed, according to the testing module. Blood from experimental and non-treated control animals was collected from the external jugular vein before the beginning of the experiment (hour 0) and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, 132, 144, 156, 168, and 180 h of the experiment. An immune response profile was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis of the level and expression dynamics of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ particles on the surface of T lymphocytes. The study demonstrated that experimentally-induced burns in pigs caused cell-mediated immune response reflected in the changes in the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T lymphocytes, and that early necrectomy in burnt pigs acted in a protective manner for the organism, based on the immunological index values. The study also proved that the dynamics of cell-mediated immunological response intensification determined on the basis of the percentage of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ T lymphocytes is conditioned by the size of the burnt surface and the time of necrectomy procedure.
Obesity is a serious problem in numerous dog breeds, but knowledge of its hereditary background is scarce. On the contrary, numerous DNA polymorphisms associated with human obesity have been identified, with the strongest effect being demonstrated for FTO gene. We used targeted next-generation sequencing (tNGS) to search for polymorphisms in the region harboring FTO and IRX3 in 32 Labrador dogs. Moreover, we investigated the selected regions of FTO and IRX3, orthologous to the human regions associated with obesity, in 165 Labradors. For all dogs, the following information was available: age, sex, gonadal status, body weight, and body conformation score (BCS). The use of tNGS revealed 12,217 polymorphisms, but none of these obtained significance when lean and obese dogs were compared. Study of two SNPs in the 5’-flanking region of FTO in 165 dogs – creating two upstream reading frames (uORFs) – also showed no association with body weight and BCS but suggested the need for improvement in FTO annotation. No polymorphism was found in the 5’UTR of IRX3. Additionally, no differences of CpG islands methylation status between lean and obese dogs were found. Our study suggests that FTO and IRX3 are not useful markers of obesity in Labrador dogs.